Globalization of Academic Research in Japan

Globalization of academic research  is a reality in the contemporary world. National boundaries are getting obliterated because of the Internet and instant electronic communication. In fact, in the last few years, there is an increasing collaboration among researchers in science, humanities, and the arts from around the world to produce results that have a global impact. In statistical terms, a report by the National Science Foundation confirms that 6,477 new international research alliances were formed in the 1990s, and this is only a fraction of the international research alliances in the 2000s.

This shows that the combined forces of globalization of academic research and and internationalization are transforming research worldwide. Research in Japan, which has had an isolated past, is also reinventing itself since the 1990s. Not surprisingly, Japan is the world’s second highest R&D spender behind the U.S. and contributes 13% of the total expenditure on R&D worldwide. This has largely been possible because of the rapid strides of industrialization in Japan.

However, the talent pool that contributes to industrialization comes from Japan’s academic institutions. Therefore, in the last few decades, there has been a conscious effort to facilitate globalization of academic research in Japan.

Globalization of Academic Research in Japan: Problems and Way Forward

Two factors that have hindered globalization of academic research in Japan are the language barrier and the lack of alignment of the academic year in Japan with the international calendar. However, both these impediments are being tackled to make Japan a truly global destination for research. Several universities have already introduced classes in English for undergraduate courses. For instance, The University of Tokyo (Todai) has launched its new all-English undergraduate programs. Further, there are more than 50 graduate schools where students can enroll for lessons conducted in English.

The mismatch in the academic year in Japan with the global academic calendar is also under scrutiny for change, although it might take some time coming because it will entail a complete overhaul of Japan’s education system. However, Todai has recently announced a four-semester plan, which is likely to start in March 2015. This will make it easier for foreign students to study at Todai from the beginning of the second term in September, and for Japanese students to utilize the summer break of June-August to study overseas. With a similar objective of attracting overseas researchers, Waseda University has also introduced four “quarter terms” as an alternative to the semester system.

Japan’s plan for international student exchange, known as the “300,000 International Students Plan,” was launched in 2008 and aims to achieve the targeted number international students by 2020. Another significant initiative toward globalization of research in Japan was the “Global 30” Project, launched by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology in 2009. The objective of this program was to establish 30 core universities for internationalization. This initiative has successfully broken down the language barrier, and a range of courses in many research fields are being offered in English at the universities.

The university is undoubtedly the cradle for pioneering research in the future. Therefore, it is important to open up Japan’s research institutions to international research talent, and to simultaneously send Japanese researchers for exposure in other countries.  Already, researchers from universities and research institutes in Japan are travelling to China, Vietnam, Russia, Hungary, Germany, France and many other countries, with reciprocal visits from those countries.

The Future of Globalization of Academic Research in Japan

These are the first steps in Japan toward an international mix of researchers, which have gathered momentum after the turn of the millennium and will yield tangible results in the next few decades. Assimilation of international researchers in higher education, backed by favorable government policies and funding for research projects, will go a long way toward globalization of research in Japan, and will hopefully take research in Japan even higher on the global stage.

SEO Content Writing

Search engine optimisation or SEO content writing is not just an application to be used for the website, but it can be used for various other benefits as well. In a broad sense, SEO tools can be used in many different ways in order to promote websites, businesses, and products and services. In fact, one will be completely astonished at all the ways in which these services can be useful.

The present article on “SEO content writing” gives the fundamental ways to use SEO content writing and SEO tools. It also provides detailed information on why to use the services of SEO content writing.

Ways to use SEO Content Writing

Firstly, SEO content writing can be definitely used for websites. Organic search engine optimisation (Organic SEO) is significant for getting in the search engine records at a high position and compelling visitors to the website. Simultaneously, it is necessary for the content to be appealing, fascinating and instructive for the readers. Consequently, the visitors will be tempted to hang on to your website long enough to possibly buy services and/or products, or at least ask for some extra information. Hence, SEO content writing can be certainly used for improving the content of a website.

Secondly, SEO content writing can also be used for blogs for similar reasons as discussed above. Blogs are a great way to endorse businesses, develop brand appreciation and representation, as well as increase visitors to the main website. For this purpose, we have to use the same SEO procedures for our blogs that we would have used for the main website. Ensure that the blogs are mostly instructive in nature. Besides, they must be connected to your main website as a source for extra information, useful products or services.

Thirdly, SEO content writing can be employed for internet marketing purposes. One expects that anything he/she posts on the internet utilises organic SEO so that they have as many positive connections to their website as possible, and as a result receive plenty of hits in the search engines on different websites and advertising methods. The most general manner by which these services can be used for internet marketing is through article marketing. Instructive articles are written about products, services, company, and/or industry. Then, these articles are posted into article listings, where they get arranged in the search engines. The articles have a link connecting them back to the main website in order to increase visitors. Meanwhile, people come across the content and get to know about the company/brand in a positive light, thus increasing business.

On the whole, there are several other ways in which SEO content writing can assist in our dealings. The only limitation is our own imagination. Gradually, you will realise that the more SEO content you put on the website, the more successful your company will develop into. Therefore, utilise these services as much as possible, and be surprised at the outcomes you will accomplish.

Content Development

Content is the most essential part of any blog or website. In order to make the content interesting for the readers, the content needs to be exceptional and simultaneously creative. Readability of any content is determined by how the content has been developed. Content development is a chief factor of content writing and more or less content that is reasonable, appropriate and convincing.

The present article on “Content Development” provides some basic tips to keep in mind, and hopefully, even follow them while writing any content for blogs, websites, etc. to come out with an exceptional piece of work.

Tips for Content Development

  • There exist certain features that manage the prospective of good quality content. Basically, it is a three step procedure. The first is to identify the target reader or audience, second is to write the content in a convincing manner, and third is to make use of appropriate keywords in the content.
  • While searching on the internet for a certain topic or a subject matter, we usually come across numerous websites and blogs related to the same topic and material. But what renders a particular webpage separate from others is its content development.
  • While writing content for any webpage or website, it is essential to dedicate a sufficient amount of time and explore into the subject matter to come about with significant content.
  • While writing content, ensure that the content you are writing is directed towards the anticipated reader/audience. In other words, the reader must find the content valuable enough to read it till the last part.
  • In order to improve readability of the content, try to use standard English as far as possible. Avoid using jargons or other difficult words and phrases for enabling the reader to understand the content easily. However, one can always put efforts in making the content appealing and engaging.
  • Spelling mistakes and grammatical errors can be serious negative aspects of any content. So, it is always advantageous to proofread the content before publishing or putting it online.
  • Depending on the topic one is writing the content on, the language can be formal or informal. However, make sure that the language is realistic and persuasive.
  • When a reader is searching some information on the internet, he/she types in specific keywords on a search-engine and is thus presented with links for the related webpages that have those keywords in their content. Therefore, it is always advised to insert some suitable keywords while developing the content. Doing so helps in improving the page rank of the webpage, and thus, develops the content readability.

Apart from all the above mentioned points, the most important point to be taken into account while content development is that the content must communicate a specific message, so that the reader realises the content to be worth reading.

Writing Online Articles

Writing online articles is relatively effective and interesting when written in the appropriate manner. Apart from gathering information, writing content, and uploading them online for the whole wide world to read it. It is certainly more effectual to follow some basic rules and techniques in order to produce a remarkable piece of content.

The present article on “Writing Online Articles” provides some basic tips that will help you to improve the quality and effectiveness of your online articles.

Tips for Writing Online Articles

  • The first paragraph of the online article must clarify what the article is about. Who? What? When? Where? And so on. The first paragraph must emphasise the concerned issue or subject. It should also give details about how you are going to deal with it.
  • Ensure that your article is well organised. Prior writing online articles, decide on the points you are going to report on and in which sort.
  • Even though you have a list of more than thirty points written on your notepad. Ensure to select only the most relevant ones. Deviation can cause misunderstanding, thus avoid the ones that can be easily ignored.
  • Ensure to use simple words and sentences. The article should be easy to read and easier to understand. Not everyone who reads your online article is familiar with the terminology used. Thus, try to define and simplify any kind of terms that may seem unfamiliar to the readers.
  • Ensure to employ short paragraphs. Short paragraphs are easier to comprehend. They keep the readers focused as well. Try to limit your paragraphs to around two to five sentences.
  • If necessary, provide some valid examples and/or personal experiences to support your points. Explain how you solved the problems, or use theoretical arguments to build a point.
  • Ensure to highlight your product or service. Show its potencies and benefits. Simultaneously, try to be truthful about it as any kind of wrong or false point can pose a great threat to the service you are promoting.
  • Online articles can be a powerful and valuable resource if used properly. Provide information resources to your target traffic. Give links that endorse your claims. So that the target audience can easily source the information they are seeking.
  • While writing online articles, it is really helpful to get some opinions from others. Try to get your finished, but unpublished, article be proofread by someone dependable. Let them give you their own point of view about the content of your article. Regarding the limitations, and based on their suggestions, you can definitely improve the content of your article before publishing it.
  • Ensure to keep the most relevant matter at the beginning and additional information throughout. Avoid scattering it all over your article. Write in such a way that your target readers get to know straightaway what they are looking at. Or else, they might search for the information elsewhere.
  • Ensure to summarise your article. Show in your summary that you have covered the points you started out to cover in your first paragraph.

Writing online articles is not as tricky as it would seem in the beginning. By following and adhering to the above given tips, you will soon realise that writing online articles can be a reasonably trouble-free process. However, it will just take some initial practice to perfect it.

Writing an Appendix

Writing an appendix is a useful option when you need to present non-essential information in your paper. An appendix is the last section of a paper, which contains detailed information about the research and provides additional scope for better understanding of the study. It contains extensive resources that can be further investigated by the reader. It also helps to analyze and validate the results and conclusions. It is placed at the end of the paper as it may disrupt the flow of thought in the main text, which can be quite distracting for the readers. It can include graphs, maps, tables, questionnaires, forms, calculations, bibliography, etc. Including an appendix in your paper is optional. Any type of writing can include an appendix such as essays, thesis, reports, research papers, etc. Formatting an appendix section is generally done as per certain guidelines like APA, Chicago Manual of Style, etc. Apart from that, there are several general guidelines that need to be followed when writing an appendix.

 Tips for Writing an Appendix

  • First analyze whether writing an appendix for your paper will be beneficial for the target readers. If yes, include it in your paper.
  • There can be a single appendix in a paper or more than that depending upon the requirement. If there is a single one, label it as Appendix. If there is more than one, label as Appendices; under that, label it as Appendix 1, 2, Appendix I, II, or Appendix A, B depending upon the style.
  • The title of the appendix should be descriptive to the reader.
  • The appendix/appendices should be cited in the main text of your paper.
  • Each appendix must always begin on a new page.
  • It should be well-structured so that the readers can easily understand it.
  • The appendix is not included in the word count of a paper. So, you can make it lengthy or brief as per your requirements.
  • For the section headings, tables and figures, follow the same style that you have followed in your main text.
  • If a paper has an appendix, it should be listed in the Table of Contents.

These guidelines provide an outline idea about writing an appendix. Nowadays, many journals have facilitated to provide this supplementary information to online readers only so as to reduce the printing costs. So, in case you have to include an appendix in your paper, but bothered about the cost factor, you can go for the “online only” option.

Using Articles (a / an / the) in English Grammar

Using articles (a / an / the) in English grammar is quite tricky and puzzling. These articles (a, an or the) are complex words for students to learn. But, do not be troubled anymore if you are having difficulty with them. Simply follow the basic rules and exercise with the following examples.

The present post on ‘Using Articles (a / an / the) in English Grammar’ provides some valuable tips for properly using articles (a / an / the) in English grammar. This article will help you to avoid making future mistakes while using articles (a / an / the) in English grammar in your paper.

Basic Rules for Using Articles (a / an / the) in English Grammar

In the following are discussed the basic rules for correctly using articles (a / an / the) in English grammar.

The article ‘a’

The article ‘a’ is always used with a non-specific noun. It is used for talking about something in general. It is used to refer to something that has no shared knowledge between the speaker and the listener.

E.g.,

  • I brought a cat yesterday.
  • John was playing with a ball.
  • A good plan is the key to a successful business.

The article ‘an’

The article ‘an’ is used before a word that begins with a vowel. It is also used before the words that begin with a vowel sound, like ‘hour’, ‘honour’, etc.

E.g.,

  • I ate an apple.
  • An idea can change your life.
  • An hour of careful studying can bring you great results.

The article ‘the’

The article ‘the’ is used with a specific noun. It is used when the speaker and the listener have already discussed the subject. The article ‘the’ is used when something has a shared knowledge.

E.g.,

  • I brought the cat yesterday.
  • John was playing with the ball.
  • A good plan is the key to start the successful business.

No article

Sometimes, ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ will be needed in front of nouns in English grammar. But sometimes, no article will be needed at all before the nouns. When a noun is a thing that cannot be counted, also called as an uncountable noun, it will not use an article (a / an / the) before it.

E.g.,

  • I travel to India every year.
  • I am cooking fish for lunch.
  • Beauty lies in the eye of the beholder.

By following the given tips you can learn the basic technique for using articles (a / an / the) in English grammar while writing your paper. The above mentioned rules will help you to learn and also guide you for properly using articles (a / an / the) in English grammar.

Common Grammar Mistakes

Common grammar mistakes are not only easy to make, but are also easy to be noticed. While applying for employment, dropping a proposal, conversing with a customer, or trading an outlook, the silliest mistakes can destroy the agreement. Making common grammar mistakes not only makes us look unprofessional and careless, but also hampers our impression.

The present article ‘Common Grammar Mistakes’ provides some useful tips for recognising and differentiating between some common words that are usually put into wrong use accidentally. This article will help you to avoid making future common grammar mistakes in your papers.

Tips to Avoid Common Grammar Mistakes

In the following are discussed some common grammar mistakes made by people and how to avoid them in the future.

Your or You’re

‘Your’ is used to refer to someone else’s belongings, property or characteristics, etc. E.g., ‘Congratulations. Your hard work has achieved you great successes’.

‘You’re’ is the short for ‘you are’. It is used to refer to someone in person. E.g., ‘You’re formally invited to the party’ or ‘You’re one the best students of our school’.

Avoid committing common grammar mistakes like ‘Your welcome’, which in the correct form should be ‘You’re welcome’.

Their, There or They’re

‘Their’ is used while referring to something that belongs to someone else. E.g., ‘Their enthusiasm was simply irresistible’ or ‘Their apartment was sold last week’.

‘There’ is used in regard to a location. E.g., ‘I will place the table over there’ or ‘There is the red pen you were searching’.

‘They’re’ is the short for ‘they are’. It used to refer to some people as a whole. E.g., ‘They’re joining our team this summer’ or ‘They’re going on a long vacation’.

Loose or Lose

‘Loose’ is the opposite of ‘tight’. E.g., ‘Kindly repair the loose handle’ or ‘My trousers are fitting loose’.

‘Lose’ is the opposite of ‘win’. E.g., ‘I feel that the Red team will lose this match or ‘Do not lose your hope’.

Its or It’s

‘Its’ is a domineering form of ‘it’. E.g., ‘The dog is wagging its tail’ or ‘The wall is losing its paint’.

‘It’s’ is the short of ‘it is’. E.g., ‘It’s going to rain tonight’ or ‘It’s dangerous to play with a knife’.

Affect or Effect

‘Affect’ is used to refer to some kind of influence. E.g., ‘The new Professor is affecting the students’ enthusiasm in a positive way’ or ‘Cigarette smoking can harmfully affect the smokers’.

‘Effect’ is used to refer to some result or outcome. E.g., ‘The lecture had a remarkable effect on the students’ or ‘The effects of the new invention are extremely valuable’.

Than or Then

‘Than’ is used to refer to something that is being compared. E.g., ‘My doll-house is better than yours’ or ‘John is more intelligent than Jack’.

‘Then’ is used to refer to something that is time-related. E.g., ‘I am looking forward to meeting you then’ or ‘Edit your paper first and then proofread it’.

The above discussed tips offer guidance to avoid making common grammar mistakes while writing a research or academic paper. Do not hurry. Always take out some time to cross-check your paper. Re-read and edit your paper, or ask someone else to proofread it for you. These common grammar mistakes may seem irrelevant at first, but your intellect will be questioned when these errors are noticed. Hence, always be careful and patient to create an error-free paper.

Choosing Effective Title and Keywords in APA Format Research Paper

The American Psychological Association (APA) format for a research paper mainly consists of four sections: the title page, abstract, main body, and references. Most of the time, the researchers are busy writing the main text of the paper, overlooking the importance of choosing effective title and keywords in APA format research paper.

Little importance is given to the title and abstract in a paper while the keywords are almost ignored and written in a hurry at last. This is a dangerous thing to do as these three—the title, abstract, and keywords—are essential for publication success.

Choosing Effective Title and Keywords: Why is it Important?

Choosing effective title and keywords in APA format research paper is extremely crucial in helping someone find your research. Without these, most papers will not be read or found by readers. This is because most search engines, websites or databases use the words found in the title, abstract, and keywords to display the paper when someone searches with a keyword. Thus, the title of the paper, keywords and the abstract decide whether the paper will be found and cited by another researcher or reader.

In most cases, the title and abstract are freely available in the internet. Therefore, the title and abstract determine whether the reader will continue to read the paper and want to buy it.

Choosing an Effective Title

A good title should be around 10-12 words and should only use words and phrases which correctly highlight the content of the research paper. An effective title will help search engines to categorize and rank the paper for better viewership.

While writing the title, it is necessary to search for those keywords that properly describe the paper. The title should be self explanatory, correct and comprehensible. The title in an APA format research paper is center aligned at the top of the page and is not bold, italicized or underlined.

After the title, the author(s) name(s) and institutional affiliation(s) as well as the corresponding author and contact details are presented.

Some Steps Towards Writing an Effective Title in APA Format Research Paper

  • Choose vital keywords from the paper.
  • Then frame a sentence with those keywords.
  • Delete unnecessary words and rephrase if needed to form a meaningful sentence.

Choosing Effective Keywords in APA Format Research Paper

Keywords are written after the abstract in an APA paper in a particular format. Around 5-6 keywords should be listed (the number might vary according to journal specifications). They are written after an indent, as if starting a new paragraph. The word ‘Keywords’ is italicized, followed by a colon mark, and is left aligned. The keywords are written in lower case with a comma separating each key word. There is no full stop after the last keyword.

While writing keywords, you must think what words you could have given while searching for your own paper.

Therefore, for better exposure and publication chances, care must be taken while choosing effective title and keywords in an APA format research paper.

Email

Email is a very swift method of correspondence. Through an email one can send data or information across the world to multiple recipients in a few seconds, at a fraction of the cost of the courier or postal charges. This is a great advantage but can be a drawback too. As once the sent button is hit there can be no recalling of the information sent. Though some software is found which can retrieve a sent email but it is not popular and easily available.

An email can be seen and read simultaneously by many recipients, open to a more constructive criticism and feedback. Another disadvantage of emails is that due to their ease and simplicity, emails often tend to be associated with speech and casual language rather than formal script, which can lead to miscommunication.

When sending email as part of a professional communication, keep in mind these two points:

  1. An email message is a written text; therefore, it is bound by the conventions of writing. The audience and purpose should determine the relative formality of style and the amount of detail. Ease of transmission and deletion does not justify sloppy composition, wrongly spelt words and ungrammatical sentences. A very common complaint with business emails are that writers seem abrupt and disrespectful and seem written in haste.
  2. Email does not replace hard copy. Printed and signed documents are still considered more binding and formal than soft copy. Therefore, it is always better that even when you email a report for fast transmission, make sure to send a hard copy to formalize the communication. Firstly, it is still easier to lose documents in cyberspace. Secondly, there can be technical glitches’ with electronic communication, whereas print can fall back on the universality and reliability of paper.

The closest hard document to an email message is the memo. Email headers, for instance parallel memo headers, comprising From, To, Subject and Date. Therefore, construct an email message like a memo. This means you should:

  • Begin with an opening address: This could be ‘Dear’ … … for more formal correspondence or ‘Hello … ‘ for less formal. You can omit an opening address if the message is one in a series of reply exchanges on a topic.
  • Place your main message as close to beginning as possible: Give as much information possible in the first paragraph. All details must be given in following paragraphs.
  • Write in full words and paragraphs.
  • Never use uppercase to emphasize anything, its better to italicize the word.
  • End the mail by clear stating the expected response by the person after reading the email.
  • Sign your message with your name and affiliation and contact number.

Other points to be kept in mind while writing an official mail are keep short paragraphs while writing emails. Do not use headings, tables or formatted text in the body of the email. If there is large data then include those in attachments and not in the body of the email.

Use of email is appropriate in cases where even their deletion will not cause any problems. They can be used instead of letters in case of external communication and memos in case of internal communication. It is always better to get a hard copy for binding contracts or information that needs to be recorded.

Print vs. Electronic Writing

Strengths of Print Writing

  • We can read printed documents much easily than electronic ones. Reading online increases reading time by about 25%. This is because the visual resolution of a printed material is about 250 times sharper than the computer screen.
  • Print media offers more portability. We can read a book/newspaper/magazine anywhere without the hassle of hardware.
  • Print materials are faster to skim through. They can also be easily shuffled compared to online pages.
  • It is easier to underline or highlight something on paper.

 

Strengths of Electronic Writing

  • Generally, online publishing is more cost effective than print publishing.
  • Online publishing provides more scope for experimenting with style and space.
  • Colors appear more bright in online pages (use RGB) compared to print pages (use CMYK).
  • It is much easier to edit or update online content. It can be done with just a few clicks. In print media, for updating any information, the whole thing needs to be reprinted, which increases expenditure.
  • The use of multimedia helps to present online materials in a much more pleasing and entertaining manner.

Electronic writing offers more interactivity. For example, in surveys, people respond more readily to online requests.