PRIMARY RESEARCH

Primary research is that kind of research that needs us to go out and collect data. This comprises surveys, interviews, observations, and ethnographic research. Primary research is an excellent skill to acquire as it helps in a variety of settings including business, personal, and academic. To have knowledge about conducting primary research is beneficial as it can greatly supplement the secondary sources research, such as journals, magazines, or books. A good researcher knows exactly how to use and integrate both primary and secondary sources in her writing.

What is Primary Research?

Basically, primary research can be understood as the research conducted by marketers to collect original data for their own requirements. This process involves the marketer, or someone working for the marketer, designing and carrying out a research plan. Notably, primary research is usually undertaken after the researcher gains some insight into the concerned issue by collecting secondary data.

Primary research, though not used as frequently as secondary research, represents an essential part of general marketing research. Many organizations, mostly large consumer products firms, preferably spend more on primary research rather than on secondary research. Marketing researchers use various types of instruments, ranging from basic methods that record participant responses to highly advanced electronic measurement in which research participants are connected to sophisticated equipments.

The primary research market includes marketers who conduct their own research, and a large group of companies that provide their services to marketers. These companies include:

  • Full-service market research firms, which develop and carryout the full research plan for their clients.
  • Partial-service market research firms that offer expertise addressing a specific part of the research plan, like developing methods to collect data, undertaking data analysis, or locating research participants.
  • Research tools suppliers firms, which provide tools for researchers, including data collection tool, data analysis software and report presentation products.

Advantages of Primary Research

  • Primary research is designed to collect information needed by the marketer, and report it in ways that benefit the marketer. The marketing organization, by conducting their own research, identify issues specific to their own situation. For example, the information collected with secondary research may not meet the marketer’s needs, but with primary research, no such problem exists since the marketer controls the research design.
  • Primary research not only enables the marketer to focus on specific issues, but also enables the marketer to exercise a higher level of control over the collection of information. Subsequently, the marketer decides on issues, such as size of project, location of research, and time limit for completing the project.
  • Primary data collections focus on issues specific to the researcher. Due to this fact the research funds are spent efficiently.
  • Information collected by the marketer with primary research is generally not shared and is thus kept hidden from competitors. This potentially offers an advantage to the company that undertook the primary research.

Disadvantages of Primary Research

  • In comparison to secondary research, primary data seem to be quite expensive since there is a great deal of involvement of marketer and the expense in preparing and conducting research can be high.
  • Primary data collection needs the development and implementation of a research plan. From deciding to undertake a research project to having results, all these often take much longer than obtaining a secondary data.
  • Primary research is not always feasible, as some research projects are unavailable to the marketer even though they potentially offer information, which could be quite valuable. For example, it would not be convenient for a company to interview every customer visiting their store on a certain day, as doing so would need hiring a large number of researchers, resulting in an unrealistic expense.

TYPES OF RESEARCH

After having chosen your topic to write on, you need to gather information about the topic so as to broaden the scope of your writing and to improve its quality. This process is known as research, which plays a key role in writing, whether it is professional, academic, fiction or non-fiction writing. Research in writing includes reading more around the topic, taking notes, assessing its relevance for your purpose, and finally, integrating it within your text. The role of research in writing is best explained by Mark Twain: “First get your facts; then you can distort them at your leisure.”

Moreover, research can be divided into primary and secondary research, depending on the sources used to gather information. Primary research includes direct observations, preparing questionnaires and interviewing, undertaking fieldworks, and conducting experiments to gather analytical and descriptive information. Whereas, secondary research includes printed and electronically transmitted reading materials to search for historical backgrounds, different points of view on an issue, and theoretical perspectives on the topic.

Proper research before writing not only authenticates your writing but also helps to make your writing unique and interesting to read.

The Revising Process

The process of revising involves a series of steps, basically following the ARRR (adding, rearranging, removing, and replacing) method. In each step, the writer considers a set of questions from general to specific concerns:

  • Is the document complete?
  • Is all necessary information included?
  • Is the question answered adequately that you had set out to answer?
  • Is the hypothesis tested?
  • Have readers understood your main points and their pertinence?
  • Is the overall look of the document attractive and compelling?

After checking of the organisation of the document, ordering the given information and reorganising paragraphs is important. In addition to the logical sequencing of information, a conventional sequencing, depending on the type of document that you are writing is also important. A thorough grammar check is also important at this step. Check all paragraphs for unity and cohesion. Also, check if you have included all relevant information.

Finally, proofread the entire document for word choice, punctuation, spelling grammar and logical flow. Avoid any unnecessary repetition or wordiness for a clear, correct and concise document.

Comprehension – English editing.

With concept, vocabulary, sentence structures being made easy and clear to the students all the students follow the prose passage in detail and the teacher’s questions and students answers make further follow- up procedure still easier. Thus prose is made an experience and easy lesson, an addition in learning.
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Ye – English editing.

The history of the use of ye is complex. In the earliest period of English it was used only as the plural subjective form. In the 13th century it came to be used in the singular, equivalent to thou. In the 15th century, when you had become the dominant subjective form, ye came to be used as an objective singular and plural (equivalent to thee and you).
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Wreak – English editing.

The past participle of wreak is wreaked, as in boll weevils wreaked havoc on the US cotton industry. An alternative expression is wrought havoc, as in over-fishing has wrought havoc in some areas. Wrought is an archaic past tense of work and is not, as is sometimes assumed, a past tense of wreak. There is therefore no justification for the view, sometimes expressed, that wreaked is an incorrect form.
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Whenever – English editing.

In its emphatic use (e.g. whenever shall we arrive?) the one – word form whenever may also be written as two words (whenever shall we arrive?). In its other senses , however, it must be written as one word: you can ask for help whenever you need it; I’ll do it at the weekend or whenever.
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Verbal – English editing.

Some people claim that the true sense of the adjective verbal is ‘of or concerned with words’, whether spoken or written (as in verbal abuse), and that it should not be used to mean ‘spoken rather than written’ (as in a verbal agreement). For this meaning it is said that the adjective oral should be used instead. In practice, however, verbal is well established in this sense and in certain idiomatic phrases (such as a verbal agreement) cannot be simply replaced by oral.
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Unthaw – English editing.

Logically, the verb unthaw should mean ‘freeze’, but in North America it means exactly the same as thaw (as in the warm weather helped unthaw the rail lines); because of the risk of confusion it is not part of standard usage. Unthawed as an adjective always means ‘still frozen’, but it is best avoidable because many contexts may be ambiguous.
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Worthwhile – English editing.

When the adjective worthwhile is used before the noun. (i.e. attributively) it is always written as one word: a worthwhile cause. However, when it stands alone and comes after the verb (i.e. when used predicatively) it may written as either one or two words: we didn’t think it was worthwhile or we didn’t think it was worth while.
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