Thence – English editing

Thence and from thence are both used to mean from a place or source previously mentioned, as in they intended to cycle on into France and thence home via Belgium; this is not a commodity which can be transported from thence. Some traditionalists maintain that from in from thence is unnecessary, since the word already contains the idea of from, so that effectively you are saying from from there.
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Untouchable – English editing.

In senses relating to the traditional Hindu Caste system, the term untouchable and the social restrictions accompanying it were declared illegal in the constitution of India in 1949 and of Pakistan in 1953. The official term for ‘untouchables’ today is Scheduled Castes.
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Tribe – English editing.

In historical contexts, the word tribe is broadly accepted (the area was inhabited by Slavic tribes).However, in contemporary contexts, used to refer to a community living within a traditional society today, the word is problematic. It is strongly associated with past attitudes of white colonialists towards so-called primitive or uncivilized peoples living in remote, underdeveloped places. For this reason, it is generally preferable to use alternatives terms such as community, nation, or people.
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Titivate – English editing.

The verbs titillate and titivate sound alike but do not have the same meaning, and to use the wrong one could be unfortunate. Titillate is the commoner word and means ‘to stimulate or excite’, as in the press are paid to titillate the public. Titivate, on the other hand means ‘to adorn or smarten up’, as in she titivated her hair.
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Till – English editing.

In most contexts, till and until have the same meaning and are interchangeable. The main difference is that till is generally considered to be the more informal of the two and occurs less frequently than until in writing. Until also tends to be the natural choice at the beginning of a sentence: until very recently, there was still a chance of rescuing the situation. Interestingly, while it is commonly assumed that till is an abbreviated form of until (the spellings ‘till and ‘til reflect this), till is in fact the earlier form. Until appears to have been formed by the addition of Old Norse und ‘as far as’ at least several hundred years after till was first used.
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Thankfully – English editing.

Thankfully has been used for centuries to mean ‘in a thankful manner’, as in she accepted the offer thankfully. Since the 1960s it has also been used to mean ‘fortunately’, as in thankfully, we didn’t have to wait. Although this use has not attracted the same amount of attention as hopefully, it has been criticized for the same reasons. It is, however, far commoner now than the traditional use, accounting for more than 80 percent of uses of thankfully in the Oxford English corpus.
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Prove – English editing.

For complex historical reasons prove developed two past participles; proved and proven. Until recently, in British English proved was generally used for the past participle, and proven survived only in dialect, particularly in the Scottish legal phrase not proven (usually pronounced/proh-v’ n/), and adjectivally: he has a proven track record(generally pronounced/ proo – v’n/). In the US, proven is much more common as the standard past participle than in Britain (she has proven to be an outstanding manager),but its use has been increasing recently in Britain; although this is perfectly correct, some traditionalists may baulk at it.
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Demodicosis is a infestation caused by mite from Demodex species, belongs to class arachnida called Demodex folliculorum or Demodicid, It is a tiny mite that lives in the pores of hair follicle. Demodex folliculorum is commonly found on the nose, forehead, scalp, cheek, chin, and eyelashes of adult and it’s number continue to increase with the increasing age of an individual and is often associated with blackheads, acne , rosacea, and skin irritations.
Adult Demodex folliculorum has an appearance of worm with four pair of short legs. It’s size ranges from 0.1mm to 0.4 mm; has a needle like mouth. The body is covered with layer of scales which helps the mite to anchor itself in to the hair follicle. The mite doesn’t have the excretory system. The mite copulates outside the hair follicle then female mite moves to a new hair follicle and lays up to 25 eggs in the hair follicle. The larva grows in to a adult mite in the hair follicle. During the day the mite stays in the hair follicle and feed on sebaceous secretion, and at night, it come out of the hair follicle onto the surface to the skin to mate and female mite moves to a new follicle and lays eggs over there. The whole cycle takes about14 to 18 days.
The mite stay in the hair follicle with head-down. When too many mites get buried into the same follicle, it may cause the hair fall and induce inflammation around the hair follicle.
The infection by demodex mite depends on the ability of individuals gene to induce immune response against the mite. The body reacts to the existence mites and induces an inflammatory response as it tries to rebuff the mites.
It has been observed that eighty-eight percent of individuals with thin hair have Demodex Folliculorum in their body, in contrast to 9% in individuals with normal hair density. The incidence of demodex in the hair follicle of a individual varies with age , it has been reported that about 25% of demodex is seen in about 20 years of age, 30% in 50 years , and up 50% in 80 years age.

Demodicids are mostly present in adults and they are usually harmless; they do not transmit diseases to others by close contact but infection occurs when large number of these mites congregate in a single follicle. It produces itching and inflammatory lesion at the site of hair follicle, as it is commonly found on the face, it’s often regarded as the ‘face mite’.Infection is commonly noticed in adults with oily skin; persons using heavy cosmetics, and those who don’t wash off cosmetics thoroughly.
The demodex infection is characterized by itchy erythematous edematous papules, pustules on the face and scalp. The infestation may be frequently free of symptoms. However, Demodicidosis is characterized by the presence of an erythematous papulo- pustular rash on the face. The inflammation is either acute and chronic in nature. Our observation was also similar but our patients had extensive areas of involvement face, scalp, back, ‘V’ area of the chest, axilla and forearm.
Treatment with topical Permethrine5% for 5-7 consecutive days, and the other drugs which have been used effectively are Gamma benzinehexachliride, Oral Ivermectin, Metronidazole 2% cream and oral. In our personal cases we had used Permethrine 5% topical cream effectively with rapid clearance of symptoms and lesions.
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Sweet’s Syndrome(SS).

Sweet’s syndrome is eponym for acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis coined by Dr Sweet from Plymouth, England, who first described this condition in 1964. It is characterized by acute fever, leukocytosis; with sudden appearance of tender erythematous papules, nodules, and plaques. The edema is so intense that the papules and nodules often resemble vesicles so often the description used for the papule is pseudovesicle. The plaques are formed by coalition of papules that gives an arcuate appearance. Sweet’s syndrome is common in middle-aged women, but men, children are also be affected. Hematological investigation shows neutrophilia with diffuse infiltrate of neutrophils in the middle and upper dermis of skin biopsy.
Sweet’s syndrome is characterized by four features: tender erythematous plaques with arcuate border and the plaque studded with pseudovesicles. The other associated features are: fever; conjunctivitis, leukocytosis, and papillary dermal infiltration of neutrophils in the skin biopsy. Fever and neutrophilia is not a consistent feature. The diagnosis is mostly based on the typical skin eruption and characteristic histological finding in skin biopsy.
Based on the clinical setting the SS is classified into classical or idiopathic sweet’s syndrome, malignancy-associated SS and Drug-induced Sweet’s syndrome. Classical Sweet’s syndrome (CSS) usually presents in women between the ages of 30 to 50 years, it is often preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection and may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy. The malignancy-associated Sweet’s syndrome (MASS) can occur as a paraneoplastic syndrome in patients with an established cancer or individuals, whose Sweet’s syndrome is related hematologic dyscrasia in malignant associated SS. The dermatosis in MASS may precede, follow, or appear concurrently with the diagnosis of malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is acute myelogenous leukemia and approximately 20% of cases are associated with hematogenous malignancy. Drug-induced Sweet’s syndrome (DISS) most commonly occurs in patients who are receiving granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, hematopoietic growth factor and the lesions typically occur when the patient has leukocytosis and neutrophilia. SS may precede 3 months to 6 years before the manifestation of any associated disease or malignancy, so these patients needs to kept under prolonged follow up and regular clinical and hematological evaluation to know the early development of these condition. Because of this, it is believed to be reactive phenomenon or cutaneous marker of systemic diseases. At the same time, it is also suggested to be having genetic association but no genetic link has been identified till today.
The skin lesions predominantly occurs on the head, neck, legs, and arms, and particularly on the fore arm and cheeks. Development of fever (50%); arthralgia or arthritis (62%); eye involvement in the form of conjunctivitis or iridocyclitis (38%); and oral aphthus (13%) has been noted. Other organs affected are: bones, nervous system, kidneys, intestines, liver, heart, lungs, muscles and spleen. Rarely sweet’s syndrome lesions may turn bluish or grey and form abscess-like nodule and ulcerates known as ‘pustular vasculitis.
Hematological investigations of these patients frequently shows neutrophilia (in less than 50%), elevated ESR (greater than 30 mm/hr) (in 90%), and a slight increase in alkaline phosphatase (in 83%) cases, C-reactive protein (CRP); and p-ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody) is some. Skin biopsy shows mixed infiltrate of polymorphonuclear cells with nuclear fragmentation and histiocytes in the mid and papillary dermis of skin biopsy. The infiltrate is predominantly perivascular with swollen endothelial cell, and vessels, however, changes like: thrombosis; fibrin deposits, complement, or immunoglobulins are seen within the vessel walls; red blood cell extravasation ; inflammatory infiltration of vessel walls are absent in early lesions, unlike vasculitis. But, the features of vasculitis do not exclude the diagnosis of SS.

Sweets syndrome responds to systemic corticosteroids given at the dose of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight per day. It cases rapid improvement of the symptoms and skin lesions, so it’s regarded as the “gold standard” in the treatment for SS. The skin eruption, increase nerutrophil count and fever improve within 72 hours of treatment with corticosteroid. The complete clearance of skin lesions takes about 3 to 9 days, however, frequent recurrences is seen in one-third cases. Corticosteroids are tapered over 2 to 6 weeks. The disease may clear spontaneously in some patients. Other drug effective is oral potassium iodide, colchicines. dapsone, doycycline, clofazimineand and cyclosporine. These drugs are indicated, when the use of steroid is contraindicated. Our cases were given corticosteroid with complete clearance of their lesions with no relapse after discontinuation of corticosteroid.
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