Cohesion words or phrases define the association between one sentence and the next. These words or phrases link a sentence with its pervious or next sentence, thus, helping readers to relate the sentences and the authors intended meaning. The writer can use but, however, in spite of, or some other similar linking word or phrase; however, one should take care of correct grammatical structure.
Let us take the examples of some cohesion words and the relationship they express.
- Enumerative cohesion words/phrases introduces the order in which points will be made. Examples: first, second; one, two; a, b; next, then, subsequently, finally, in the end
- Additive words reinforce or confirm what was said. Examples: again, then again, also, moreover, furthermore, in addition, what is more
These words also highlight similarity. Examples: equally, likewise, similarly, correspondingly, in the same way
- Explanatory words introduce examples. Examples: for example, for instance
- Illustrative words note alternatives. Examples: alternatively, or again, or rather, but then, on the other hand
Other cohesion words include synonyms, referential pronouns, parallel structure, etc.
These are words with closely related meanings and help in addressing excessive repetition. If you used approach in one sentence and want to repeat the same idea, then you can use its synonym method in the next sentence. Similarly, for skill, you can use ability, and so no.
However, one should make sure not to overuse them as its excessive usage can make your document confusing and unclear.
If two sentences begin with the same subject, then you can use a personal or referential pronoun in the second sentence instead of the word itself (I, he, she, it, we, they, this, that, these). However, if the use of a pronoun makes the sentence confusing, then you should repeat the noun.
Parallelism refers to similar grammatical structures of headings and sentences used within a paragraph, and it adds clarity to your paragraph.
Not parallel: These books are not primarily for reading, but they are used for reference.
Parallel: These books are not primarily for reading but for reference.
Not parallel: Not only is he conscientious worker, but also he is very competent.
Parallel: Not only is he conscientious but also competent.
Parallelism is also important in instructions.
A. Setting up the printer, maintenance, and what to do if something goes wrong are easy with ABC’s step-by-step user guide.
B. Setting up the printer, maintaining it and troubleshooting are easy with ABC’s step-by-step user guide.