Common Reasons Why a Research Paper Gets Rejected by Journals

Publishing industry is enormous and authors are open to choose the appropriate journal for submission. Though, there are thousands of journals to choose from, the rejection is common in scholarly publishing. The rejection causes demotivation among researchers, who dedicate months in designing and writing a perfectly molded paper.

Here, we have focused on the common mistakes for which academic papers are rejected by journals.

Technical screening

Manuscripts submitted to a reputed high impact academic journal undergo severe scrutiny even before they are screened by the editorial board members and reviewers.

The primary causes of their rejection at this stage are:

  • The paper is not relevant to the journal’s readers or are not under the aims and scope of the journal
  • Paper lacks novelty in the relevant field
  • Plagiarized content
  • Ethical concerns
  • Unavailability of Informed consent forms of subjects
  • If similar research papers are already under consideration
  • The paper has not been prepared based on the journal’s guidelines
  • Incomplete materials (If the author hasn’t provided the mandatory documents)

 

Peer review process

After the initial screening, the editors assign the reviewers to initiate the peer-review process. In the peer-review a comprehensive critical analysis of the high-quality papers takes place.

The primary causes of their rejection at this stage are:

  • The aim is unclear and introduction part lacks clarity
  • Use of insignificant or outdated procedures or methodology
  • Statistical analysis of the data is inadequate and weak
  • Illogical or unstructured arguments
  • The data does not support the conclusions
  • Insufficient data failing to produce significant result
  • Poor writing or contains too much jargons
  • Inconsistencies in the writing with grammatical and spelling errors

 

Quality of figures and other issues

  • If author has failed to obtain written consent of the participants before/during the research.
  • Conflict of interest declaration, copyright issues, plagiarized data and other ethical concerns associated with the research paper.
  • The journal may not have the space for the paper
  • The paper is incompetent with the high standards of other papers submitted to the journal
  • Non-archival data and of insignificant value to the journal
  • Poorly designed and irrelevant repetition tables or figures

Whatever the reasons, make sure that you read the feedback in depth and reflect on it. Even if you don’t agree with the feedback, it’s still important to understand why someone else might have thought that. Hence, knowing and accepting the reasons of rejection by the journal can significantly enhance the chance of publication in the next attempt.

CT Scans Offers the Best Diagnosis for COVID-19 Disease

COVID-19 is a contagious infection caused by the coronavirus family, the most recently revealed disease. This newly discovered virus has been provisionally termed “2019 novel Coronavirus” (2019-nCoV), which is a novel infection outbreak with possibly extensive public health complications, therefore on the edge of spreading throughout the world.

Signs associated with novel Coronavirus:

The indications associated with thisCOVID-19, include high temperature, drowsiness, and dry cough. A number of sufferers might possess pains and aches, sore throat, nasal jamming, runny nose or diarrhea. All of these mentioned symptoms are generally minor and initiate progressively.

For the above-mentioned reasons, vaccines for this virus cannot be rapidly prepared for at least a year to the public. Therefore, the best thing is to check symptomatic patients to avoid or slow the virus spread.

Screening methods:

Presently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a molecular technique necessitating distinct laboratory machines, is used to diagnose maximum pandemic-prone diseases, including coronavirus. The diagnosis of Coronavirus is taking a new turn as the current nucleic acid testing protocols are turning up a high amount of false negative. For better disease treatment and control, early identification of the virus COVID-19 is crucial.

Computed tomography:

Computed tomography(CT), a routine imaging tool, is fast and comparatively stress-free to perform. CT usage distinct x-ray equipment to inspect irregularities found in other imaging tests and to aid diagnoses the reason of unexplained cough, breathing shortness, chest pain, and fever. The advantages of CT scanning are accuracy; speed, simple, as well as noninvasive.

Compared to RT-PCR, chest CT imaging is considered for better stable, applied, and fast method to diagnose and assess COVID-19, especially in the epidemic area. In numerous studies, the sensitivity of chest CT was found to be greater (98 percent) than that of RT-PCR.

A number of researches trust the usage of chest CT for COVD-19 diagnosis for patients with medical and epidemiologic symptoms well-matched with COVID-19 contagion principally when RT-PCR test is negative. Hence, now the focus of the scientific world should be on testing the suspected patients at the initial stage and quarantine the infected as soon as possible. This action will not only help to reduce the current Covid-19 epidemic greatly but also will generate a system for emerging comparable tools to end upcoming pandemics.

Dopamine and disruption of biological clock system in Obesity

Naturally in humans, the body prepares itself to consume as much as possible and stores them as fat which gets utilized when one is fasting or hasn’t eaten properly. However, it has been found in previous studies that overeating alone can account for the obesity epidemics. Overeating leading to obesity has been found to be associated with an increase in the rate of heart diseases, type 2 diabetes, cancers, and other diseases, such as hypertension.

Positive changes in lifestyle, like by reducing the intake of calories and involving in daily exercise, are considered as effective ways for combating obesity. However, still these steps are ineffective when considered for a long-term goal. Fast foods or easily available palatable foods contribute to maladaptive eating which further leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Palatable foods contain much more intense flavors than standard foods, which when consumed send signals to the accumbens nucleus, which triggers the release of dopamine.

Moreover, recently published updates have shown that the regulation of circadian activity of enzymes, hormones and the major metabolic transport systems are controlled by the energy homeostasis. Any disturbance in the circadian rhythms causes metabolic disorders resulting in obesity.

A recent study states that the brain’s two areas, one that produces dopamine and the one with the human biological clock system, influence each other. Also, the high-calorie palatable foods disrupt the normal feeding schedules and hence results in overconsumption.

The study shows that the dopamine signaling in the nervous system directs the circadian rhythms and influences eating of high-energy diets at irregular intervals and between meals. Previous researches also support the fact that mice fed with a high-fat diet at irregular timings stored excess calories as fat with a much more faster approach than the same number of calories when consumed only at regular eating intervals. This ultimately results in obesity and other metabolic disorders like diabetes.

This study was conducted by Ali D. Güler, Professor of Biology at the University of Virginia, with his team. They reported that when the mice were fed with a wild diet i.e., low calories, maintained normal eating behavior and proper weight. However, when the mice were fed with a high-calorie diet (fat-rich diet), they started “snacking” throughout the day and became obese.

Moreover, the “knockout” mice with disrupted dopamine signaling –rejected the rewarding pleasure of the calorie-rich fat diet when presented with high-fat diet throughout the day. They showed a normal eating schedule and thus, maintained their proper weight.

In conclusion, it can be said that, what we eat, when we eat and how much we eat are equally significant. Calories when consumed irregularly, i.e., between meals, become adipose tissue which ultimately becomes the reason for illness.

Application of DNA fingerprints to identify mutational signatures

Cancer and its causes

The major cause of cancer is found to be some unwanted changes in the structure of DNA that are otherwise called as mutations, inducing uncontrollable cell division. There are many reasons of cancer, such as lack of fidelity of the DNA replication machinery, disclosures to mutagen, enzymatic DNA alteration, and faulty repair of DNA that results a definite fingerprint on DNA damage. All the cells of human body possess somatic mutations throughout life.

What are mutational signatures?

There are certain mutational patterns within the cancerous gene that are now being revealed including the complication of somatic mutation. Several mutations create specific arrangements of mutation types, designated “Mutational Signatures”. Due to increase in the quantity of sequenced whole-genome and refined analytical methods, it is possible to extract more mutational signatures along with more exact definition of their structures.

These fingerprints help in understanding the development of cancer and their prevention. Extensive analyses have discovered numerous mutational signatures in human cancer kinds. However, previous researches were not sufficient to recognize all probable mutational signatures.

Identification of mutational signatures by DNA fingerprinting

Mutations are of various types, starting from single nucleotide mutations to deletion or insertion of a chain of nucleotides resulting in genetics changes. These changes can act as mutational signatures to be identified by DNA fingerprinting. The consequence is the prevalent database of reference mutational signatures ever. Half of all the mutational signatures have identified reasons, but this source could find more causes and understand cancer development in a better way. Certain mutational signatures, or DNA fingerprints, reveal the cancer response to drugs.

 Future prospective

The foundation of certain signatures is accepted, however, for several it remains hypothetical or indefinite. Explaining the mutational processes will be influenced by two key investigations. At first, mutational signatures accumulation from model systems, exposed to known mutagens or disturbances of the DNA maintenance machinery and assessment with those found in human cancers. Second, the association of the causes of mutational signatures with other biological characteristics of each cancer through varied methods extending from molecular profiling to epidemiology. Jointly, the researches will develop the cancer aetiology understanding with possible suggestions for prevention and management.

Nighttime photovoltaic cell

The earth gains loads of solar energy i.e. 173,000 terawatts, which is 10,000 times higher than the entire people utilize. Therefore, it is certainly a good idea that one day the Earth totally relies on solar power for power consumption. The conventional solar panels, made up of solar cells use solar energy for this purpose. These are made from semiconductors like silicon (the second-highest material found on the earth) and have ordinary working potential.

Alternative photovoltaic concept

The energy from the sun is anticipated to provide the required supplementary energy to the earth. But, the usual photovoltaic cells only utilize sunlight during the day time for generating electricity. The shortage of action in the night demands the requirement for expensive cells as well as grid connection to other energy sources, especially fossil fuels. As world wants to have net-zero carbon footprints, novel sustainable energy production methods should be performed also at night. Hence, a substitute photovoltaic idea, which works on the principle of thermoradiative cells as well as evolving area of radiative cooling so as to produce energy throughout the day and during the night, must be employed.

Working Principle

After sunset, a substitute photovoltaic perception was considered in an attempt to generate electrical power. This generates electrical power utilizing the earth’s temperature as a thermal source of power and the dark atmosphere as a thermal heat sink, producing a “nighttime photovoltaic cell” that works on thermoradiative photovoltaics.

The thermoradiative model

The fundamental efficiency of the thermoradiative cell depends on retaining the difference in temperature between the photovoltaic cell and the atmosphere. For any radiating object in communication with a colder environment, the object loses heat energy to maintain the temperature. Therefore, the photovoltaic cell should be kept constantly at a higher temperature (at 300 K) to maintain the flow.

In addition, the cell’s upper exterior should be coupled to the sky to make it optically active. All of these standards propose a module that: the photovoltaic cell should be conducting in nature at lower surface. The ultimate goal should be restricting the conductive as well as convective heat loss to the environment, and comprising an infrared window at face of the cell to permit the transfer of heat to the atmosphere as radiation.

Better tomorrow by smart utilization of photonics

In summary, as the world wants to have net-zero carbon footprints, the sun is never the solitary sky-facing choice for energy production. The novel models suggest the probability of night energy production by communicating with the sky at lower temperatures. These types of models require resilient absorption and emission at thermal wavelengths and dry weather circumstances to enable visual contact to the nighttime sky. The atmosphere provides a fascinating cool thermal sink having the prospective to support offering electrical power at nighttime and day by the smart utilization of photonics, optics, and materials science.

Advance bioinformatics tool tests approaches for identification of cancer genes

Being a complex genetic disease, cancer is resulted predominantly due to mutations in somatic cells of the genome. Mutations in the somatic cells may imbalance definite cell cycle process causing the attainment of cellular susceptibilities that convert a healthy cell to a cancerous cell. These changes drive cancer instigation and development. Additionally, they comprise of inactivating growth suppressors, counterattacking cell death, and further irregular phenotypes. As cancer is related with the genome disorder, hence it is practical that treatment approaches must be established on changes in genomic structure.

Numerous changes in somatic cells which are considered as mutation induce as well as promote tumor growth, and most of these genetic changes are being detected by the scientists of cancer genomics.

Traditional experimental approaches

Numeroussomatic mutations are being reported applying low‐throughput approaches, including systematic mutagenesis, cytogenetic techniques, genetic linkage analysis, and targeted gene sequencing. Conversely, all of the outdated methods are tiresome, cumbersome, and expensive.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) in cancer genomics analysis

Next-generation sequencing detects the driver‐genes, with mutations leading the resistance to drugs. Furthermore, it can be applied to sense hypermutation that is likely to be important biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitors. This also defines changes in double‐strand break repair pathway of DNA that is an evolving objective for novel treatments, and like wise-diligently linked to genetic genomic changes. Certain biological pathways along with a group of cancer‐associated genes (mutated genes) are being compared to pre-established biological pathways. Methods which are based on network search for cancer genes and biological pathways that characterize the interactions between cellular molecules. Methods learning pathways de novo do not utilize any previous information about the genes (interactions or pathways) and deduce cancer genes and pathways based on the forms of co‐occurrence or mutual individuality between the genetic abnormalities.

Methods for detecting novel cancer genes

Identification of unusual cancerous genes initiates with tumor samples sequenced. The major step is to distinguish genetic mutations using variant callers from sequencing data. The easiest methods to achieve this are by noticing recurring variations and by forecasting the practical influence of every mutation. The approaches can be classified mainly within 3kinds: (a) that utilize established paths, (b) those are founded on current biological system facts, and (c) envisaging cancer pathways de novo founded on the combinatorial forms of incidence in tumors group.

Limitations

There are numerous issues to be addressed so as to perform efficiently in future cases.  High cost is the major issue of NGS. The NGS‐based gene panel experiments charge several thousand US dollars per sample, and the whole genome sequencing costs more than NGS.

After the analysis in NGS, the further task is to understand the data and choose the therapeutic agent which will mostly be appropriate by linking gene alteration information along with scientific data. Presently the work is in progress in Japan and other developed countries. There are huge, online accessible genomic databases; but, the quantity of the data associated with medical cure outcomes is as yet inadequate.

Bio-engineering approach towards making a living heart valve

Qatar University researchers have made advancement in creating living heart valves that can grow after implantation in the human heart. The bioengineering cardiac valves were developed using a mix of nanotechnology, 3D printing, and tissue engineering. The valves shall be inserted into the body where they continue to grow until the valve is fully integrated with the native tissues of the patient. The process showed that the tissue-engineered heart valves imitate the functions of natural heart valves, effectively opening and closing at speeds and pressures close to those available commercially. The researchers plan to test the valves in living animals under different conditions to determine whether they are safe for humans to examine.

Reference Link: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-01-bioengineering-heart-valves.html

Molecular memory in plants

Plants utilize a set of precise sensory systems to screen the significant factors, for improving the growth, improvement, metabolism, morphogenesis, and behavior in their environment. Plants acquire remarkable capabilities to utilize chemical occurrences to defend themselves against predators and notify the neighboring plants of the danger.

Do plants have a memory?

Plants do not have a brain or nervous system as humans do but acquire a “molecular” memory. Molecular memory is the elaborate mechanisms enabling plants to respond to environmental changes. The responses of the plant are regulated at a molecular level by alternations in gene expression. All memory functions have a molecular basis, like in signal reception and transduction, and in the storage of information.

In what way, the memory works?

Experiences on certain environmental events can be stored in the form of chemical molecules. The transformation in the chemical nature of a cell includes the change in protein content, the supplementation of the primary as well as secondary metabolic products, or the medication of enzyme activity in the plant cell. The plant immune memory shapes immunological memory similar to competent immunity as in mammals. All of these processes can be used to store experiences in organisms without a nervous system.

Role of epigenetic mechanism

Plants are unable to move freely, so try to get control of environmental stresses by timing their physiological processes. For this reason, epigenetics comes to play. The role of epigenetic regulation responses to environmental stimuli, particularly in response to stresses. Hence, plants have advanced epigenetic machinery that controls their flowering scheduling.

Vernalization

Vernalizationassistancesthe plants regulate the correct time to bloom flowers. Researchers have established that some plants can recall the experiences they had of drought and dehydration, cold and heat, excess light, acidic soil, exposure to short-wave radiation, and simulation of insects eating their leaves. If they face with similar situations again, the plants adapt themselves accordingly. They may keep extra water, become more sensitive to light, or develop their acceptance to salt or cold. Sometimes, these memories are even handed over to the next generation by spreading information in form of chemicals or electric charges through the air or from their roots.

“Root-brain” hypothesis

The knowledge that plants display intricate and flexible behavior that involves intellectual procedures is not firsthand. Actually, scientist Charles Darwin had recognized the intellectual sensitivity of plants when he suggested the “root-brain” hypothesis that the tip of plant roots acts like the brain of some. The recent studies verify the earlier Darwinian insights and demonstrate that most of the behavior of plants are adaptive, thus confirming their existence.

Evidently, plants do not have a nervous system like animals; therefore, the ways of response to all the environmental changes are unlike from other animals. However, plants are confronted with similar types of tasks as per animals and have progressed methods to understand the situation in order to resolve it.

Selecting the right journal for publication

Authors need to optimize between many criterions before reaching a conclusion to publish a paper. You need to follow few tips to select the best journal for publication. Firstly, make a list of the journals available. Subsequently check the impact of the journal, confirm the requirement of journal, and verify the journals’ peer-review process. Following the above points in mind you can proceed to choose the best probable journal for your publication.

Reference Link: https://blog.typeset.io/choose-right-journal-early-stage-researchers-guide-ea2cf236dde4

A novel approach of gene therapy

Exosomes to amend disease processes: Researchers have established a novel gene therapy method by converting human cells into bulk creators of mini-sized nano-particles poised of hereditary material that has the capability to alter disease progressions. The technique uses exosomes; that are bio-friendly transporters of beneficial ingredients that make a way for cells to connect with other cells. This technique depends on patented skill that stimulates contributed adult stem cells to produce millions of exosomes that work as nanocarriers comprising a drug. When these exosomes are inserted into the blood, they are well aware of where to target, even though it is the brain. These exosomes collected from adult human cells, functions as nano-carriers containing a drug.

Application of tissue Nano transfection : In 2017, James Lee, professor emeritus and colleagues at the Ohio State University made impressions with news broadcast of tissue nano transfection (TNT); a regenerative medicine discovery. This technique is based on a nanotechnology-based piece to transport biological load straight into the skin, and changes adult cells into the desired cells. This was also adapted by Zhaogang Yang, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, termed cellular nanoporation.

The reason exosomes are designated to avert diseases: In in-vitro conditions, the artificial DNA force-fed to giver cells is imitated into a different fragment containing messenger RNA that holds the commands required to yield a definite protein. Every exosome foam comprising messenger RNA is converted into a nanoparticle prepared for transference, with no blood-brain barrier to worry about. Lee said, “We don’t want the exosomes to go to the wrong place. They’re programmed not only to kill cancer cells but to know where to go to find the cancer cells. You don’t want to kill the good guys.”

Light of Hope in the therapy: The best part for this is that they exosomes do pass the blood-brain barrier; maximum drugs can’t. An additional benefit that it occurs is zero toxicity; they do not induce an immune response. This drug-delivery method has the potential for the imminent uses in neurological ailments such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Expectantly, someday this can probably be used to treat the deadly diseases.