Writing Sequential Numerical References for a Research Paper

Reference list: Introduction

A formal reference is a published or unpublished source from which information is sought while writing a research paper. A reference list is a list of the information used in the original paper, sorted in the order in which it occurred. It is normally found in the last part of the paper, nevertheless, it can also be found as a footnote or an endnote.

Significance of a Citing your Sources

Referencing is essential for conducting excellent research and for your readers to understand how you conducted your research. Knowing why you need to reference can help you see why it’s critical to know how to reference.

Types of Reference/Citation Styles

A citation style specifies the material that must be included in a citation, as well as the order in which the information is presented, as well as punctuation and another formatting. There are a variety of methods for citing sources from your research. The citation style used can vary depending on the academic discipline.

There are four referencing techniques or conventions that are regularly utilized. The Modern Languages Association, the American Psychological Association, the Harvard, and the Modern Humanities Research Association are the four systems. Further styles used in styling include Oxford, Chicago and Vancouver (numeric).

Numeric style of Reference format

Vancouver is a numbered style. In Vancouver referencing, every data/information is assigned a number that relates to the sequence same as it appears in the text, which is a numeric reference style. The same number is used if the same source is mentioned more than once in the text.

Using references in the manuscript as citations (i.e. in-text citations)

You can enter the number in brackets or as a superscript when adding an in-text citation to your document. Whichever option you use, be sure you maintain consistency throughout your work. e.g. (1) or [1] or 1.

Include the citation number for each piece of work if you want to cite more than one source in a sentence. To connect two integers, use a hyphen. g. There are many studies that have examined the effect of alcohol on cognitive impairment (1,3, 4-7, 9).

Example: These findings were in agreement with the results of previous studies [2,22-24]. It is noteworthy that some researchers have reported that BMI does not correlate with H. pylori incidence [8,23].

Listing references (i.e. reference list at the end of the paper)

It is not necessary to mention the author in the citation in the text while using the Vancouver style, but you must include the author in your reference list at the conclusion. This list appears at the end of the paper, in numerical order same as it appeared in the text.

Example: Pattnaik K, Das K. Property rights, control, and the performance of firms in Indian industry. Journal of Economics 2019;42(1): 109-138.

APA (American Psychological Association) Citation for a Research Paper

Citations: Introduction

Citations are the documentation required in a research paper to get accepted for academic purposes or publications. While writing an article or any academic content, an author must include citations (in-text) whenever they refer to a sentence, paragraph, or quote from another source. It basically acknowledges the fact that the information used in a research paper did not originate with the writer.

Types of Citation

Different types of citations contain a different set of rules on how to cite sources in academic writing. There are certain ways the citations can be arranged in a document: Parenthetical citations, Endnote, Footnote, works cited as Lists, Bibliography, etc.

The most common citation styles are MLA, APA, Chicago, as their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers.

 

APA (American Psychological Association)

APA Style of referencing is the most commonly used form citations in academic and research papers related to social and behavioral sciences by students, researchers, and professionals and it is recommended by American Psychological Association, USA. The APA system updates the referencing guidelines in electronic formats in a separate guide called the APA Manual, which the University students and researchers can use in book format or online through the library.

Disciplines using APA Style include Social Communication, Administration, Business, Education, Political Science, and Psychology.

There are two things to be considered when working with the APA citation style: in-text citations and the reference page. An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). APA style recommends using a reference list for references cited in the text of a paper rather than a bibliography. A reference list includes only those references which were actually cited in the text of the paper. The references must be corresponding to each other.

APA formatting guidelines with Examples

APA in-text citation style

The in-text citation uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Mohanty, 2007). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Mohanty, 2007, p. 77). A paragraph number can be used for websites and e-books as they do not have page numbers.

APA Reference List citation style

  1. Journals and Periodicals

Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your reference list.

Rule:

Author Last Name, First Name Initial. (Publication Date in parenthesis). Article Title. Journal Name (Italicized), Volume (Italicized), Issue number, beginning page-end page. DOI or URL

Example:

Mohanty, B., & Mohammed, A.B.C. (2001). Title of the Paper. Bioscience Reseapro Journals, 15(112), 123-153. DOI: 10.1433005e24/brjda/21d46

  1. Books

Rule:

Name of author (last name, first initial). The date of the publication in parentheses. The italicized title of the book. Edition of the book in parentheses. Name of the Publisher. DOI number or URL or ISBN. Place period after each element.

Example:

May, K.V.R. C., & Abdul, Z. (Eds.). (2018). Title of the Book. Reseapro Academic Press. ISBN 97afqwf28137666.

  1. Website/Online Source

Rule:

Name of author (last name, first initial). (The date of the publication in parentheses). Title of article. Website name. Website URL

Example:

Keay, Y. (1191, June 22). Article Title or Headline. Reseapro News. https://www.reseapronews.com/news/national/1191/06/10/dsd-martin-wdff-fwfn-fwf-for-office-india.html

APA Citation for a Research Paper Overview

Hundreds of reference examples and their respective in-text citations are presented in the 7th edition Publication Manual. The Examples of most common research that writers site are available on this page and other additional examples are available in the Publication Manual.

To cite an appropriate and specific source, first select a category (e.g., Journals) and then select the appropriate type of work (e.g., articles) and follow the relevant example provided under each category.

Please note: When work does not fit within another category that is provided, please use the website’s category.

Publishing your article after Acceptance

What is an Accepted Manuscript?

The version of the manuscript that has been peer-reviewed is the accepted version. The simplest permitted versions are files that are effectively just plain text with no layout characteristic. This is how the vast majority of accepted papers appear. The Accepted Manuscript should be identical to the final published edition, but there should be no logo, citation details, copyediting, formatting, or copyright marking from the publisher. The document might be in PDF or Word format. Keep a copy of your Accepted Manuscript for any future postings after you receive the acceptance email from the Editorial Office.

What documents do you receive after acceptance?

When your paper is accepted for publication, the proofs are sent to the corresponding author. A paper is subedited (copyedited) after it is accepted to achieve optimum clarity and reach. Ensuring the accuracy of references is vital as published papers should not contain errors. Your paper is combined into an issue of the journal and published in its final form once the associated author approves them.

  • An acceptance letter from your journal’s editorial system.
  • When the object is passed to production, the Production Tracking System (PTS) sends an acknowledgment letter with the following information:
  • The reference code for the utility to track your accepted article.
  • Offprint Order form link to order Proofs and reprint of your article.
  • Copyright, sponsorship and funding, and open access are all covered in the Rights and Access form.
  • A link to a colour figure reproduction form, if applicable.

What to do after Research Paper acceptance?

There are still things that you must-do if you truly want to benefit from your publication.

  • Get an ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) as it assigns a unique identification to each research output, ensuring that your work is not mistaken with that of others.
  • Making the accepted work online provides some advantages, including:
  • Earlier access to research that can be read and cited
  • Authors can promote their work as soon as it is acknowledged by their peers, keeping the publication process moving forward.
  • Share it with people as possible to recognize and respond to your work. Breaking down technical and language barriers is another powerful and effective strategy to increase public interest in your work. The way different publishers and periodicals address the problem of sharing differs.
  • Researchers will have more prospects for grant acceptance because they would be able to list their work early.
  • After all of your time and work has gone into publishing and promoting your paper, it only makes sense to keep an eye on it and assess the feedback.

Conclusion

The length of time it takes to prove an article varies by journal. Most journals will send you proofs within two weeks of receiving your acknowledgment letter. Many papers are published online one week before they are printed, and the corresponding authors of these papers will be notified via e-mail when the online publishing date is confirmed. It takes roughly 4-6 weeks for an article to be published after it has been accepted. After that, you can unwind, relax, and reward yourself for your work until the next piece.

How Open Access Publication is sustainable?

The desire of scientists and academics to report the results of their study in academic journals is an ancient practice. For the sake of investigation and education, articles are published without charge. The internet is the latest technology. Reporting practice and publishing technology is useful for future purposes.

 What is Open Access?

Open Access is the free availability of Research Articles on the public internet, allowing anyone to read, download, print, scan, and use without any difficulties. OA journals are expected to become more prevalent in the academic market in terms of both articles published and journal titles, as the scholarly community around the world accepts OA publication formats.

What are the benefits of open access with Global Sustainability?

  • Articles are immediately available online after they are published, offering them the opportunity for increased exposure and dissemination. Gold open access permits anyone with an internet connection anywhere in the globe to view published research without having to pay a subscription fee.
  • A high-quality scholarly journal can be published at a low cost to the scientific community. Not only is all of the material on the website open to view, but the broad range of media, multilingual content, and unlimited existence of the journal’s copyright license allows for the free flow of scientific communication, which is ultimately beneficial.
  • All contributions will be peer-reviewed by Editorial Board before acceptance. Scientific journal publishers, especially medical publishers, have a duty to ensure that the material they publish is as rigorously peer-reviewed as possible and as easily shareable as possible for scientists and society as a whole.

 

Seeking Sustainability in OA

  • Varied firms have different aspects, but the majority agree that you must pay for validation, suitable copyediting, presentation, sustainability, and functionality. Publishers are dedicated to ensuring that their material is widely distributed and accessible. Any long-term access options that protect the scholarly record’s integrity and permanence should be supported. They collaborate closely with funders, universities, and governments to make this possible. A subscription-based journal, hybrid publishing choices are examples of such choices.
  • Payment for open access publishing is made upfront via article processing charges (APCs). APCs might be considered as a more equitable payment mechanism if the charges are based on costs that reflect the services delivered.
  • Gold open access is one strategy for achieving our common aim of increasing access to peer-reviewed scientific works and maximizing the value and reuse of scientific research findings. Institutions and donors play an important role in ensuring that public access regulations enable the funding of peer-reviewed publications and service offerings in any journal that an author chooses. Publishers are eager to collaborate with organizations to achieve this goal and enhance scholarly communication.

 

Conclusion

The researchers, the users, and the funders are all involved in the publication of research. Publishing is a competitive industry. Authors fight for journal space, publishers compete for articles, and library budgets compete with one another. For authors who want to bring the decisions about where to publish and how to pay closer together, Open Access and APCs are a viable option.

Market Trends in Open Access Publishing

Define Open Access (OA) publishing?

Open access is a scholarly communication publishing strategy that makes research articles freely available to readers, as opposed to the traditional subscription model, which requires readers to pay a fee to access academic information. This is a concept adopted by researchers, scholars, and libraries.

 What is Article Processing Charge (APC)?

An article-processing charge (APC), sometimes known as a publication fee, is a price levied to writers to make their work open access in either open access or hybrid journal. The author, the author’s institution, or the author’s research funder may be responsible for this cost.

APC includes providing editors and authors with online tools, article production and hosting, coordinating with abstracting and indexing services, and providing customer service.

Papers should be published as rapidly as possible, subject to proper quality controls, and broadly disseminated, regardless of the publishing model chosen by the author.

The following criteria are used to determine APC rates for open access articles only:

  • Journal quality
  • The journal’s editorial and technical processes
  • Competitive considerations
  • Market conditions
  • Other revenue streams associated with the journal

Researchers and scientists of scholarly articles operate as consumers in the market for article processing charges (APC).

What are the current trends in the Open Access Market?

 OA faces significant competition as Researchers continue to aspire to publish in top-tier academic journals owing to their high impact factors and reputation for publishing high-quality research papers. The major publishers continue to dominate the marketplace, and successful ventures into the open-access market are uncommon. The peer-review process has been criticized in the OA market due to the obvious conflict to publish as many papers as possible to generate revenue that gives priority over quality control. Although growth is decreasing, it is still in double digits and much ahead of the underlying journal market. Articles in fully open access journals are showing signals of long-term growth, whilst hybrid journals appear to be flattening. This could be attributable in part to the way revenue is distributed in mixed-model arrangements. According to current trends, the open-access industry will continue to grow at a faster rate than the underlying market for scholarly journals. Hybrid revenue per paper published is higher than revenue per paper published in fully open access journals. The growth curves in both volume and value of OA appear to be flattening out to a stable state. Open access is becoming a far more widely understood and accepted model of publishing in general. The views of open access journals are improving, and they are becoming more recognized as a standard model. This is good for open access journals’ long-term viability, particularly if they maintain high-quality standards.

Conclusion

The majority of research papers are written to influence other scholars, either in the same field or in a different field. Scientists have more investigation outlets such as Open Access, which increases their chances of providing original and up-to-date work. Although the proportion of money spent on open access remains below that of output, it is improving. It is generally driven by higher output levels, while price tactics may help some businesses generate income. Open Access to Science is critical in low-income countries. Institutions, academics, scientists, and healthcare providers lack the financial resources to access academic literature. Providing Open Access to high-quality research papers ensures their intellectual equality among their peers in high-income countries.

APA Style Guidelines

APA Style is American Psychological Association and is one of the most widely used Styles in the Academic World. The author’s last name and the year of publication are used in the APA in-text citation form, for example: (Canon, 2007).

What are the Mistakes made in APA Style?

The following are some of the most common mistakes people make when submitting a manuscript for publication.

Page Numbers – The page numbers and the brief title, commonly known as the running head, are either missing or incorrectly formatted in most research papers.

Abstract – Some Manuscripts fail to properly style the ‘Abstract’ part, while others fail to even mention this area in their study. The title of the abstract is bold or italicized.

Keywords– The abstract part does not include a list of keywords.

Headings – The majority of the papers contained inaccurate or improper headings that were either at the incorrect level or poorly formatted.

In-text Citation formatting – Spelling abnormalities, incorrect use of ‘et al.,’ erroneous use of commas and ampersands, and jumbled placement of several citations in a single parenthesis are the most typical problems detected in in-text citations. There are references in the document that aren’t on the reference list, or references on the reference list that are never referenced in the paper.

Quotations – Direct quotations without page numbers are provided.

References – Not giving References will lead to Plagiarism.

Single Spacing is incorrect. Not Indenting after the 1st line.  Indenting the 1st line.  Not including the right number of Authors.

How to avoid mistakes in APA Style?

The running head, or abbreviated title, appears in the header of all numbered pages.

The first impression of your paper is the ‘abstract.’ It is strongly recommended that you include an abstract as much as feasible. The abstract is placed on a separate page, with the heading centered and formatted in the same manner as the remainder of the material.

Search engines use keywords to find the information that the reader is looking for. The abstract is followed by a list of keywords formatted according to the APA style guide.

In APA style, headings can be difficult to format. The title of a research article is much easier to format than the heading of a literature review piece, which is a little more difficult.

In-text citations must be correct and reliable. Citations should have the same name and year of publication throughout the work. Multiple citations within a single parenthesis should be organized alphabetically.

It is recommended that page numbers be provided for direct quotation since this will save time and energy spent searching for the page from which the quotation was obtained.

All APA citations should be Double Spaced. All lines after the 1st should be indented. The first line should not be indented.

Conclusion

Even though the fact that the APA essay format is demanding and requires intense attention to detail, it becomes much simpler once you learn each feature separately and follow all of the Submission Guidelines steps.

The Expectation of Journal Editors

 

The editor may send the paper out for review or may reject it without review. Some scientific journals send out for review less than half of the papers submitted. Journal editors must make a swift decision on a paper’s suitability. It is important to understand what journal editors look for when deciding to send a submission to an academic journal.

What do Journal Editors do?

  • Analyze all manuscripts submitted to their journal.
  • Choose those they believe are appropriate for the journal has enough impact.
  • Send them out for peer review, and take peer reviewer’s recommendations into account when making a final decision on what gets written.
  • Look at the manuscript, the cover letter, abstract, conclusion, and references in deciding to send your manuscript out for review. Pay close attention to these components and understand why they are important will improve the chances of publishing.
  • Weigh the novelty and relevance of a paper against the readership’s perceptions and the journal’s effect.

What Checklists do the  Journal Editors have?

Most important factors that Journal editors consider. Journal editors want to publish high-quality research that their readers would find interesting. It will be readily accepted if it has the following things:

Originality

The need for something unique, something that looks at things differently and asks questions that haven’t been asked before, came up repeatedly in the interviews.

Consistency in research

  • The methods used should be sufficient
  • The conclusions drawn are justified and valid
  • The study should be systematic, well-planned, and well-executed.
  • All works cited should be correctly and carefully referenced.
  • The analysis should be focused on a theoretical context with a discussion of relevant literature.

 

Practice-based relevance

Some papers include a detailed explanation of a specific situation as a case study. Some publications enable practitioners to apply studies, perhaps in collaboration with an educator, to provide complementary perspectives.

Form and argument clarity

There is a certain form of academic writing that isn’t known for its clarity, but many editors value clarity and readability. Clarity and readability are divided into two categories: the language and  the paper’s structure

What are the questions asked by the Journal Editors?

  • Does the Manuscript fall within the scope of the journal?
  • If the Case Report has Ethics Approval?
  • Whether the Study is noble whether its methodology is better than the existing literature?
  • Is the paper carefully prepared and formatted?
  • Is the paper unique and represents cutting-edge research in the area?
  • If the paper Contributes to a thriving science sector?
  • Is the paper meticulously prepared and formatted and contains all of the required sections?
  • If the paper Uses vocabulary that is descriptive and succinct?
  • If the paper Maintains high ethical standards of the Research Process?
  • Does your cover letter provide a persuasive explanation of why the journal should publish your paper?
  • Whether the language used is clear for the readers?

 

Conclusion

The above author guidelines are a piece of general advice but the subject matter and general philosophy of the journal are important.

Medical Grant Proposal Writing

What is a Grant Proposal Writing?

A Grant Proposal Writing is a document or collection of documents submitted to an agency for the express purpose of obtaining funding for a research project. Successful grant applications are the result of a lengthy process that starts with an idea. Grant Proposal Writing is a circular process, although many people think of it as a linear process (from concept to proposal to award).

What are the Steps in Grant Proposal Writing?

Formulate a Research Question

Many people begin by formulating a research proposal. This is simpler if you know what you want to accomplish before you start writing.

  • As a direct result of your project, what expertise or information would you gain?
  • What is the significance of your study in a wider sense?
  • You must make this aim clear to the committee that will be evaluating your application.

 

Define a Goal

  • You must first determine what type of research you will conduct and why before you begin writing your proposal.
  • Even if you already have a subject or experiment in mind, taking the time to define what your end goal is will help you persuade others to support your project.
  • What exactly are you up to, and why are you up to it? Give a reason for your decision.
  • Feel free to show some initiative and tackle a dilemma, just make sure you can justify why and then persuade us that you have a good chance of succeeding.
  • Demonstrate the approach’s uniqueness by presenting the information void that needs to be filled.

 

Find Funding Agencies

  • Whether or not your plan is funded is largely determined by how well your intent and objectives align with the priorities of awarding agencies.
  • Locating potential grantors is a time-consuming process, but it will pay off in the long run.
  • Even if you have the most compelling research idea in the world, if you don’t submit it to the right institutions, you’re unlikely to be considered for funding.
  • There are a plethora of resources available to learn more about granting agencies and grant programs.
  • Most colleges, as well as several schools within universities, have research offices whose primary function is to assist faculty and students with grant applications.
  • To assist people with finding potential grants, these offices typically have libraries or resource centers.

 

Do Internal Review

  • Seek the advice of a mentor or a senior colleague for a second opinion. Remember to check the following things –
  • Title
  • Introduction about the Medical Research
  • Problems in the Medical Research
  • Objectives
  • Preliminary Literature Review
  • Research Methodologies
  • Research Plan
  • Make a Budget Plan
  • Reference

 

Plan your Budget

  • Your proposal must be presented to the funding body as a successful cash reward.
  • There must be a strategy for every aspect of the mission.
  • Analysts will go over it carefully to ensure that the study’s components are affordable.
  • Your application can be executed due to over-costing.
  • Consider if the advancement you can make in the field justifies the expense.

 

Conclusion

Before writing a Research Protocol, identification of Sponsors and Understanding Application Guidelines is vital. Many companies are providing professional grant writing services.

Benefits of Open Access for Students

What is Open Access?

Open Access is the works that are available freely online. The various kinds of Open Access Content – Research Articles, Images, Videos, Open Educational Resources. In this users are free to retain, reuse, revise, remix and redistribute.

How Students Get Benefits from Open Access?

Students & Professors

  • The more open-access information there is, the more likely you Students to have free access to reference textbooks and journals.
  • Open Access takes one step closer to allowing students from other universities to legally share study materials.
  • It also gives students in developed countries access to study findings.
  • Due to the excessive cost of journal subscriptions, even the largest and most well-funded universities are unable to provide their students with full scholarly records.
  • Students attending smaller or less well-funded colleges and universities must make do with whatever access their library can provide. Community college students, who make up a sizable portion of higher education students, struggle even more.
  • Students in every discipline need access to the most recent studies to receive a comprehensive education in their field of study and to be able to jump right into work after graduation. Due to a lack of research resources, students must rely on readily available knowledge rather than the most applicable.
  • Open Access ensures that students receive the best possible education without being arbitrarily limited.
  • Open Access not only helps Students but also Professors. Professors who don’t have access to the most up-to-date information are unable to carry it into the classroom.
  • With science progressing at such a rapid rate, professors must have access to cutting-edge research and academic journals for teaching Students.
  • Colleges and universities in developing countries face far greater difficulties than their counterparts in the developed world in acquiring the most up-to-date academic literature, and also have inadequate library budgets. Open Access would vastly expand the amount of knowledge accessible to these students while also improving the quality of education available to millions of people.

 

Research Students

  • Many students, especially those in graduate school, seek degrees to become trained researchers. If they go on to become teachers, physicians, lawyers, or entrepreneurs, they will still need access to research to succeed. Students Access to papers disappears with their library card after they graduate. If they take a job at another university, that institution’s level of access will vary significantly from what they need.
  • Researchers in the developed world are unable to contribute to the advancement of science and the humanities because they lack access to relevant journals in their field. With Open Access, there’s no need to stress over whether you’re connected to the campus network or whether your library has a subscription. You have access to the internet from anywhere in the world if you’re online.
  • Open Access helps to lift the profile of research done in developed countries, both locally and internationally.

 

Conclusion

With Open Access, New concepts can be disseminated more quickly and broadly, triggering new research studies and providing a boost to awareness. Scientific research indicates that publishing in Open Access results in more citations and effects because of the global visibility without barriers.

How to Write A Systematic Literature Review?

A systematic analysis is a study that looks at a lot of different research. To address a particular research query, it attempts to collect all available information on a specific subject. Before beginning the systematic review, the authors provide guidelines for determining which evidence should be included or omitted. This reduces the chance of bias and improves the reliability of the results.

A Systematic literature review is a multi-stage method that can be published in the form of an original research article of the same name. Systematic evaluations should include the following:

  • Explicitly state the goals
  • Attempt to classify all studies that meet the eligibility requirements through a rigorous search strategy
  • Determine the validity of the results of the included studies
  • Synthesize the findings of the studies in a systematic way

 

What are the Steps in a Systematic Literature Review?

Phase 1 Systematic Review Planning

Make up a research topic

  • Before you begin your project, consider whether a systematic analysis is needed.
  • Determine if you have enough time and money to perform a thorough analysis. Keep in mind that finishing it could take longer than a year.
  • Form a team of collaborators to assist you.
  • Put your subject into the “Well-Built Clinical Question” structure to start your systematic analysis.

 

Create a Study Plan

  • Select your Review Studies.
  • By screening titles/ abstracts, you will be able to reject those who don’t fulfill your inclusion criteria.
  • Clearly describe the review methodology and eligibility requirements.
  • A thorough search should be conducted.
  • Make a table of contents you will read in detail and those that will be rejected.

 

Phase 2 Systematic Review Execution

Form Protocol

  • A research protocol is a step-by-step plan for investigating a biomedical or health-related issue and formulating the Problem
  • The goals of your research, information on the procedures and processes that will be used, eligibility requirements for individual studies, how data will be collected from individual studies should be included in your systematic review protocol.
  • Review the literature to make sure it has not been done before.
  • Form a Hypothesis and give the review a title.
  • Describe the steps that will be followed by the Reviewer

 

Data Extraction

  • Summarize findings of studies reviewed in a form of a table with References, Study Parameters, Focus, Gap, Findings.

 

Quality & Validation

  • Methods for Quality Evaluation of the Review Studies has an impact on the conclusion, so it is necessary to avoid any bias.
  • Make a table of research.
  • Analyze data for issues including heterogeneity (differences between studies) and sensitivity of results.
  • Consider doing a meta-analysis of the findings.
  • Make a list of studies that were omitted accessible to interested readers.

 

Conclusion

Systematic literature reviews are widely regarded as one of the most effective tools for summarising and synthesizing evidence related to a particular research topic. A systematic literature review aims to classify, critically appraise, and summarise the current evidence concerning an identified issue, similar to conventional literature reviews.