Over 300 years ago, the first scientific journals published peer-reviewed articles. Articles submitted for publication are subjected to peer review to determine their validity, quality, and originality. To preserve the integrity of science, it filters out invalid or poor-quality articles.
Peer review is a process that examines another author’s academic work, study, or ideas. In this process, journals encourage authors to meet their standards and oversee the propagation of research information to avoid unnecessary entitlements, unwanted explanations, or individual thoughts from being published without the approval of a professional reviewer.
Types of Peer Review Process
There are different types of peer reviews. They are:
- Single-blinded peer review
Single-blinded peer review allows the reviewers to know the authors’ identities but enables the authors to remain anonymous. Usually, this is the preferred way to review manuscripts.
- Double-blinded peer review
The reviewers aren’t aware of the authors’ names, and the authors aren’t aware of the reviewers’ identities in double-blinded peer reviews.
- Open peer review
The reviewers and authors are aware of each other’s identities in open peer review. This method has the disadvantage of the reviewers being influenced by knowing the identities of the writers.
- Post-publication peer review
Known as post-publication peer review, it considers peer review after publication. Unreviewed manuscripts, or “preprints,” can be published on preprint servers.
- Collaborative peer review
During Collaborative peer review, the concerned reviewers can see others’ comments, work together, and create a final peer review report.
- Interactive peer-review
This review process begins with an editor screening the work for ethical issues and unacceptable writing. Authors work directly with peer reviewers – often via an online forum. As a part of this process, reviewers provide real-time feedback to authors, collaborate with other reviewers, and discuss recommendations with authors.
Advantages of peer review
- The role of peer review is vital for maintaining the quality of the literature and advancing scientific knowledge.
- It’s not only about weeding out bad research but also about making it better. The purpose of providing feedback and offering adjustments to authors is to improve the final work. It is a crucial tool for authors since it allows them to develop a more polished and rigorous work.
Negative aspects of peer-review
- The peer-reviewing process can take a long time. The vast majority of peer reviewers are unpaid, so they may feel it is a waste of time.
- In addition, due to their research interests and other considerations, reviewers have an inherent bias. Because they operate as the gatekeepers for publication, this can slant published writing and disillusion authors.
Peer review is an essential aspect of the scientific method that has a long history. Despite several concerns about the integrity of peer review, the majority of scientists say it is still the greatest method of scientific evaluation. Both authors and editors benefit from the experience and recommendations of a qualified peer reviewer.