What are the barriers to post-publication peer review?

Post-publication peer review – doing peer review after the publication of the manuscript. When a paper is published. Everyone in the community starts to read it and comment on it either in conferences or Journal Clubs. It is an informal way of doing Peer Review.

F1000, OpenReview, PubMed Commons, TrueReview, Pubpeer are some of the Post-publication Peer Review Platforms.

 Challenges of Post-publication peer review

Lack of Motivation towards Scientific Researches

Editorial control will always be a vital feature of every open peer review method, including PPPR, as we’ve previously reported. Editors are expected to seek peer feedback promptly (and often submit several reminder emails), as well as provide a sense of “prestige” for being asked to review an article, as a clear acknowledgment of your expertise in that area.

Too many choices – Many platforms and alternative methods of use in communicating reviews. It’s likely that various comments appear on different pages but not on others when multiple copies of a paper exist across multiple platforms. It’s also likely that researchers would experience plagiarism. This mode of communication is possibly more suitable when significant theoretical or methodological shortcomings in published studies have been discovered.

Plagiarism

Allows unqualified referees to smear the Researcher’s original work with unfounded accusations, claims, and lies in the name of free speech.

Risk of non-constructive criticism

Some people may use PPPR to be intentionally confrontational in public, talking down to or intimidating their junior peers. As a result, any alternative or complementary system must mitigate or minimize this negative dynamic, ensure that an accountability process is built into and maintained, and ensure that marginalized groups are encouraged to participate.

 Solutions to Post-publication peer review

  • Offers Opportunities for Corrections Authors receive more Feedback from peers by posting papers online. This should lessen the agony of revise and re-submit.
  • Increases engagement of the Scientific Community for more recognition & career development.
  • Ensures openness by making the analysis publicly accessible to those involved in the study.
  • The technology has made it possible for Scientific Research Papers to be accessible always.
  • After reading the Research Paper, review comments can be posted immediately and shared on social media platforms.
  • Strength & Weakness of Scientific Papers is done real-time globally.

 

Conclusion

Peer review was established to ensure that research papers are well-documented and meet the scientific community’s general standards. However, another aim of peer review has always been to stimulate scientific debate. Post-Publication Peer review allows the broader community to discuss the article in greater depth, providing the open forum that peer review is designed to provide. Using this method would undoubtedly result in a conflict of interest. Peer review often prohibits discussion of a mainstream theory against a competing mainstream theory, and theoretical scientists are often denied the opportunity to do so. PPPR aims to make aspects of the daily research process more accessible to the public. It’s about bringing meaning to published research papers by using the evaluations and criticisms that researchers and others conduct.

Misconduct in Research Publication

The academic world is not without its flaws. Given the mad rush to get published and the number of publications being a measure of one’s acumen, it is not surprising that many authors often resort to some of the below-mentioned misconducts. However, it must also be remembered that often younger authors unwittingly fall prey to these same misconducts simply because they are too naïve or fail to take proper precautions.

Here are some of the top misconducts in research publication and tips on how to avoid them.

Plagiarism: Plagiarism is perhaps the most common and well-understood issue with the publication. It is also technically one of the most complicated to ascertain. Plagiarism refers to the inappropriate usage of other’s ideas or any intellectual property without explicit consent or attribution. Thus, if you pass off someone else’s words or works as your’s own, it is plagiarism.

However, what many young scholars miss out on is that even referring to some other study or project without proper attribution is also plagiarism, even if one does not try to pass it as one’s own idea. While citing an article, unless you quote the entire section under parentheses, you may be guilty of plagiarism. Technically, today in the publishing world it is accepted as a norm that if five consecutive words are the same as source material, it is considered plagiarism. Therefore, it is advised to be extremely careful even in the literature review section to avoid allegations of plagiarism.

Falsification: Data manipulation is one of the biggest problems of any research publication. More often than not, researchers resort to such measures to get more amicable results, to ensure their hypothesis is proven right, or simply to present a more robust and powerful finding than their peers. Technically, there can be 2 types of misconducts; fabrication of data in the form of generating fictitious data, or falsification in the form of selective choosing of data to suit one’s research objective. In either case, it is regarded as manipulation of falsification of data and is considered as grave misconduct.

Data duplication: This is misconduct often done unintentionally though there are instances when unscrupulous researchers do it on purpose. Technically, data duplication refers to creating exact copies same data, usually for back-up. However, in many research methodologies, especially those involving sampling or surveying, mishandling of data can lead to unintentional data duplication within the data set. Often this is done to artificially increase the total sample size, or to cover for failed experimentation. Data duplication leads to amplification of the results and in academic research it is considered a grave methodological error if done unintentionally and a form of data manipulation if done intentionally.

Unethical practices: unethical practices may include exposing individuals of groups to risks (say in medical experiments) without their knowledge, breach of individual privacy, non-anonymization of survey data, improper usage or disposal of hazardous materials, etc. Any research that violates any such norm, even unintentionally, is also considered as misconduct.

Decoding authorship: author, co-author, corresponding author

More often than not, a journal publication has attributions to multiple authors. However, when it comes to formal submissions, citation, and accreditation, the differences in the role played by the multiple collaborators need to be clarified; both amongst the authors themselves and between the authors and the journal to which they submit their article for publication.

Here are some factors to keep in mind when deciding on the authorship of an article publication.

Technically, the author is the one who is the principal architect of the article. Co-authors are those who work in tandem with the author to help them write the content. Co-authors are a kind of author who works with the main author and helps them give shape to the content as per the vision or ideation of the author.

There is often confusion about hierarchy and many suppose that the most senior colleague has to be the author while juniors join as co-authors. This is not necessarily always true. In some cases, when a senior scientist undertakes a major research project, they may ask their junior colleagues to help write an article even while the senior colleague is still the main architect of the entire project. In such cases, the senior colleague is the author while all juniors are co-authors.

However, there may also be situations where research scholars publish articles as part of their Ph.D. programs while their supervisors collaborate as co-authors. In such cases, the main author is still the research scholar who writes on his thesis work and the supervisor helps ensure the quality of work.

In the case of multi-disciplinary studies, two divergent subject experts may simultaneously develop an article with each working on the section specific to their field. They may mutually agree upon author co-authorship for such works.

Being a co-author does not mean one is absolved of all major responsibilities of the content or liabilities in case it is challenged. Most journals understand as a co-author one:

  • Has made significant contributions to the research and drafting of the article.
  • Has been actively engaged in drafting of the submitted manuscript, including revising or critically reviewing the submission.
  • Have agreed to submit to the journal for publication and thereby agrees to abide by all instructions for authors given by the journal.
  • Agrees to be accountable for the contents of the article and thereby shares the responsibility to respond to queries on the content along with the author.

Every journal submission requires the group of authors to identify the Corresponding author for the publication. The corresponding author is responsible for getting all approvals from fellow authors and is the principal point of contact for communicating with the journal. In the case of peer reviews, the journal will only communicate to the corresponding-author and in turn, it is the latter’s responsibility to respond back to the journal the collective opinion of the authors.

Either the author or co-author may nominate themselves as the corresponding author by mutual agreement unless the journal instructions specify otherwise.

How to Promote Your articles and Track them

Getting a journal publication is an achievement; but letting the world know about it is essential for career progression. In the academic world flooded with numerous publications, it is important to promote your work amongst your peers and professional colleagues.

At the same time, it is also important to keep track of the reach and impact of your article. The real merit of a publication is not just the number of reads but also number of citation and recall of the article.

Here are some important tools to promote your article and keep track of it.

  • Normally journals share pdf of published articles which one can share via mail to colleagues and targeted audiences. Do ensure to ask the journals to provide your e-mail id or professional account links in your profile. You can also share digital links of the articlewhich increases chances of clicks and thereby online readership of your article.
  • It is advisable to share printed copies of the article with seniors, peers and especially those whose articles you have used as citation in your own article,along with a short note of introduction or expressing gratitude, as the case may be. Sharing physical copies also raises chances of citation for your own article, and it is a good way of getting acquainted in the peer group.
  • Regularly update your university web page, your personal professional accounts or blogs with your publications. Share short briefs of your research with keywords. This will help your profile be highlighted in general Google searches on the field of you your research by other academicians unknown to you.
  • Use social media platforms for outreach. LinkedIn, Twitter posts or blogs are useful means of promoting one’s article. You can also post links of your article on general online platforms or blogs where you interact with other academicians for online discussions on research Use hashtags or keywords to link your article to relevant topics.
  • It is advisable to get an ORCID registration for yourself. ORCID or Open Research and Contributor ID is a unique ID for every individual which can then be used to track all publications and citation This helps avoid confusions over names, referencing, or mistaken identification. By registering and using an ORCID ID you can easily distinguish yourself and assure that your work is attributed only to yourself.
  • While there exist other platforms and databases which cover a portion of your total output (e.g. Scopus or Web of Science), or only certain types of outputs (e.g. journal articles), you can add all of your publications, works and activities to your ORCID record to create a comprehensive listing in one place, including outputs like datasets, peer review activities and more.

Besides accounts in such platforms, it is also advisable to create a simple Google alert for yourself. This is an easy tool to get records of which all digital platforms are best serving your purpose.

 

The double catastrophe of cardiovascular-pulmonary disorders

Darkness crippled in the lives of family members, with the sudden demise of the only son of the family, aged 38, years undergoing treatment for an interstitial lung disorder. The death report stated cardiac arrest not a pulmonary failure as the cause of untimely demise. This incidence like many more, hints the fine-tuning at the cellular-functional axis, amongst The MOST VITAL organs “Lungs & Heart” to support life.

Pulmonary cardiovascular disease

Both cardiovascular and pulmonary disease is the leading cause of deaths worldwide. Cardiovascular diseases developed in respiratory patients have a high mortality rate apart from affecting day to day lives. For instance, patients with lung fibrosis or COPD are more likely to die due to heart failure as compared to those with a pulmonary issue but no cardiac involvement”. The irony of the story is that the patient with lung disease is less likely to receive coronary revascularization or coronary artery bypass graft.  It is due to similar symptoms in both condition and complex management in the pretext of existing lung complications.

The dynamics of Heart Lung Reciprocity

Lungs and heart not only share the thoracic cavity in common but also are functionally interdependent. A load of transporting oxygen laden pure blood is a composite effort of both the organs. This is evident in heart diseases having breathlessness as a hallmark.

Pulmonary disease conditions such as ILD can exert backpressure to heart known as pulmonary arterial hypertension causing right-sided heart failure. Also, conditions like left-sided heart failure, mitral stenosis, myocardial infarction can cause pulmonary edema or waterlog in the lungs due to venous hypertension. Fluid accumulation in air sacs or obstruction in blood flow due to fibrosis leads to a build-up of arterial pressure resulting in morbidity due to heart collapse.

Conclusion

Advancement in medical and surgical intervention has undoubtedly increased life expectancy and strengthened emergency care. However, the major lacuna to date is the prognosis mystery regarding the unrevealing of complex lung disorders. The situation is highly alarming with the involvement of pumping organs, eventually leading to untimely catastrophe, known as DEATH.

Challenges Faced by Researchers in Developing Countries

Research is a scientific and systematic search for applicable evidence on a specific subject. It comprises crucial problems, framing hypothesis or recommended explanations; assembling, establishing and estimating data; making assumptions and reaching conclusions; and at last, wisely testing the conclusions to regulate whether they fit the formulating assumption.

In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Performing scientific study in emerging countries has numerous obstructions comprising deficiency of planning, moral and financial motivations, and lack of time available for research.

Below certain major and the most general challenges that a researcher in the developing country encounters are discussed:

  1. Nonexistence of Scientific Training

Due to the non-systemic nature of research methodology, numerous researchers, even their supervisors, carry out research without knowing the exact research methods. Before starting the research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

  1. Financial issues

Funding can be insecure at times. A number of Ph.D. scholars depend on their parents or friends financially, which is tremendously worrying and traumatic to secure new funding. Preferably, the research supervisors should be available to support this. However, to overcome this problem it is advised that scholars should secure themselves financially in case of crisis.

  1. Lack of communication with the guide

Staying in contact with ideas and development is one of the problems for researchers in developing countries. It is essential for a researcher to have proper guidance on the research project. It is imperative to converse with the supervisor so as to clarify the doubts concerning the research topic and to learn more about your research topic.

  1. Proper Time management

It is better to perform fewer things in a perfect manner than numerous things full of mistakes. A proper timetable should be prepared and followed strictly by the Ph.D. candidate to avoid half-finished tasks management. This will help the candidates to be more organized and professional in their work field.

  1. Stress

Pursuing a doctorate can be highly nerve-wracking. To overcome this stressful life, below are the points that should be followed:

  • Seeking positive feedback
  • Acknowledging your achievements so far
  • Taking stock of your competencies
  • Trying out new things

Aside from humans, pets can get stressed too. The good thing is there is a list of CBD brands which are meant to alleviate their troubles.

  1. Lack of confidence

The absence of confidence is one of the most common problems among scientists in developing countries. Scientists with low self-confidence feel less stirred thus affecting the quality of the work.

  1. Problems associated with importation

In most developing countries the complications and cost of importing scientific equipment, instruments, and spare parts is a major limiting factor to scientific research.

  1. Library management

The proper management and functioning of the library are not adequate in numerous Universities in developing countries. To get appropriate books, journals, reports, etc., an ample amount of time and energy is spent.

In summary, scientific research is provided with a very low priority in the case of developing countries.

What you should know about peer reviews

During our university years, we have all heard professors vouching for peer-reviewed publications. We were advised to refer to the research articles that have been reviewed by the experts in that field. In this blog post, we’re going to explore all the important things you need to know about peer-reviews.

Why are peer-reviews important?

 Peer-review is a means of validating research by the experts in that field of study. Once the article or the study is scrutinized by the peer expert, it is fit to be published in a journal and considered positively by governments, scientists, medical practitioners, academicians, etc.

These reviews are highly reliable because they are critically analyzed by the experts and include many helpful findings.

How is a peer review performed?

 Performing a peer review is a rigorous process and it requires one to be an expert in his field. While some lesser-known journals might accept debutants, most publications prefer well-known reviewers. The process involves critically analyzing a study and giving necessary feedback to the author. In some cases, modification is required for the research to be accepted and published. In some other cases, the article could be straightaway accepted or rejected. This approval or verification by an expert is crucial; without this, the authenticity of the research would be doubtful and remain preliminary or incomplete.

The reviewer is expected to follow a set protocol, depending on the standard and requirements of the journal or the publication. Even though there are no universal guidelines, it is advisable that the feedback should be valuable, positive, and honest.

There are three kinds of peer reviews:

  • Single-blind peer review: the author’s identity is revealed to the reviewers, but the reviewers’ details are concealed from the author.
  • Double-blind peer review: both the identities remain hidden.
  • Open peer review: the identities are revealed to both the parties involved

 

How to recognize peer-reviewed journals?

 In a situation where one needs to identify a peer-reviewed journal article, one needs to follow the steps below.

  • Start by limiting the search to peer-reviewed journals only (if possible)
  • If it’s not possible to narrow the search, one can also find the details of peer-review in the article itself
  • You can also check on com to ascertain whether the publication where the article is presented is peer-reviewed
  • If you are a scholar, and you have tried all of the above steps, you can also ask your mentor for help regarding this.

 

Even though peer-reviews can be really helpful in accessing some high-quality content, it also has its limitations and flaws. With the increasing number of publications around the world, it is difficult to find as many esteemed reviewers. Sometimes, if the identity of the author is revealed, the reviewer might form a bias based on gender, nationality, or age. Despite some of these flaws, the role of peer-reviews in providing accurate and reliable information cannot be denied.

Challenges and prospects for publishing articles

A doctorate is a mission that one has to complete overcoming all the obstacles. The very first thing that a doctor needs to do is think positively; this would motivate them all along the way. However, when it comes to writing research papers, researchers ought to keep certain things in mind to make their paper published in a good journal. The challenges to be prevailing over to publish in high-quality journals have been robustly present in nurses’ professional life.

Following the below points would probably help a doctor to achieve his purpose without difficulty:

Better Concentration

Lack of focus or direction is one of the major things that drift research. Hence, it would be wise if you communicate with your guide to help you write your research proposal. Rework your project plan to bring a crystal clear image of your project.

Proper utilization of time

From the very beginning try and spend enough time planning your project. Make sure you review them with intervals, make proper changes and keep it update; this would help you focus your work better and complete your manuscript at proper time.

Generating and consolidating an idea

While doing your doctorate, it is quite obvious to drop your self-confidence; therefore try to acknowledge your achievements, seek positive feedbacks, and explore your creativities in some other work. This would rejuvenate you for your work. Generating an original idea follows significant knowledge use about the theme, directly affecting the skilled development of this conception and innovating its construction.

Grammar and Punctuation

Writing in good English is yet another factor that researchers have to go keep in mind to publish their paper with less time. Hence, using language suitable to the theme’s intricacy is a requirement.

Peer reviewers share their concerns in global survey

Based on a survey of 4,700 researchers worldwide, The Grant Review In Focus reported that recognition is how reviewers feel rewarded. A significant number of people who took the survey agreed that they would more likely write a review for a paper if the funders agree to acknowledge their efforts.

According to International Journal of Science called Nature, about “two-thirds of those surveyed were satisfied with the process overall” and 78% believe that peer review is a best way to get research funds. There is still a large portion of people who disagreed with this because they believe peer review of such kind is never fair and unbiased.

Reference Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03105-2

Is true that corporate funded research is often far from truth?

Over the last two decades, government and non-profit funding has witnessed a significant decline while Industry or corporate funded research has seen a global growth. Two-thirds of medical research is now dominated by corporates since they fund it and that does not make things any good for the medical community. However, this practice is growing increasingly common among all prominent industries such as food and beverage, pharmaceutical, etc.

Because of this interference of other industries in the medical community, the research conducted is often not accurate or based on facts. It has been alleged that industries fund for research to pave the results in their favor although the funders has always been denying. This manipulation tamper’s with the trust of the funder’s consumer since they never really get to know the real deal and have to trust what the tampered results have to discuss.

Reference Link: https://theconversation.com/when-big-companies-fund-academic-research-the-truth-often-comes-last-119164