Reporting Guidelines for Medical Research

Health researchers might use a reporting guideline as a straightforward, structured tool when preparing publications.

What is a Reporting Guideline?

A reporting guideline is a collection of facts that you include in a manuscript to ensure that it can be, for example:

  • When a reader understands what you’re saying,
  • A researcher confirmed the findings.
  • A doctor will use it to make a medical decision, and
  • For conducting a systematic review.

Reporting guideline is used to prepare high-quality research reports since it requires the article to meet the checklist’s requirements. You can explain to the peer reviewer the checklist used to assess the document. Following this protocol, researchers can publish their findings with or without minor revisions.

What are the different types of Reporting Guidelines?

The EQUATOR Network (Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research) is a global effort to improve the quality of research publications. It includes a complete set of reporting guidelines and other resources to aid in the improvement of reporting.

A list of all of the reporting guidelines for many different study designs is available to assist you in reporting your research.

  • PRISMA – Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses – for reporting the systematic review
  • CONSORT – Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials – for reporting randomized controlled trials
  • STROBE – Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology – its flow diagram for reporting observational study
  • MOOSE – Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology – for reporting observational epidemiological meta-analysis
  • STARD – Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies – for reporting diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of the study
  • SPIRIT – Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials – for clarifying the report
  • REMARK – Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies – for Oncology and Genetic studies
  • COREQ – Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research – for enhancing the quality of the report
  • CARE – Consensus-based clinical case reporting – for precise reporting
  • TRIPOD – Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis – for Prognostic studies
  • RIGHT – A Reporting Tool for Practice Guidelines in Health Care – for Clinical practice guidelines
  • SRQR – Standards for reporting qualitative research – for Qualitative research
  • ARRIVE – Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments – for Animal preclinical studies
  • SQUIRE – Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence – for Quality improvement studies


Advantages of Reporting guidelines 

  • The quality of reporting will improve if you follow the reporting guidelines.
  • Only publications that strictly follow the guidelines will be published in a high-impact journal.
  • Assists the reviewer in ensuring that all pertinent information has been reported.



Your article must provide a clear and comprehensive overview of your findings. Complete reporting makes it easier for editors, peer reviewers, and readers to comprehend what you did and how you did it.

Poorly reported research can skew the literature, resulting in findings that can’t be repeated or utilized in future meta-analyses or systematic reviews. Editors and peer reviewers will be able to analyze your article better if you follow these standards since they will understand what you did.

Why are Professional References important?

You can not only boost your chances of being hired by providing references for positions you’re applying for, but you can also maintain a positive relationship with a previous employer during the hiring process. Keeping in touch with coworkers of previous jobs might help you grow your network and open doors to new career chances.

What is a Professional Reference?

A Professional Reference is a letter of recommendation from someone who can attest to your job qualifications. These recommendations can include employment references from prior employers or coworkers and references from people who know you professionally, such as clients or business acquaintances.

You can also prepare a list of professional references ahead of time and include only the most relevant on a resume. The most effective resumes are usually personalized to the specific job or organization you’re applying for, and you should think about targeting your references in the same way you feel about your talents, work history, strengths, and accomplishments.

What Professional References to use?

It isn’t easy to know who to call for professional recommendations. Employers typically request three professional references, and choosing the best people, especially those new to the job, can be difficult.

  • Former Supervisors

Current or Former Supervisors are the greatest people to ask about your work ethic.

  • Coworkers

Use a coworker familiar with your work who has worked closely with you if you don’t get along with your boss.

  • Professors

Professors that teach in fields similar to the job you’re seeking are excellent references, and the majority are willing to assist. Make an effort to ensure that the professor you admire recognizes you.

  • Other well-known Specialists

Even if you haven’t worked with someone well-known in the field or have a prominent position, you can use them as a reference.

  • Internship

Volunteering, internships, and freelance work are all options. You can include customers from freelancing work and references from volunteer and internship situations. This way is especially beneficial for persons with little work experience. If you mention a client from freelancing work, make sure they’re a professional firm with relevant experience.

How to Provide Employers with References?

  • Include the job title, name, company, phone number, address, and email address when providing a professional reference to a potential employer.
  • Make a list of references that you can give to potential employers.
  • Before giving out someone’s contact information, make sure you have permission to use them as a reference.



The average job applicant should have three to four solid references on a professional resume for senior roles, including five to seven references on their resumes. Always put your strongest recommendation at the top of your list, as Referrals are usually checked at this point, most often by potential employers.

A current list of people willing to serve as references is always a wise move. When we are close to receiving a job offer, we consider connections. That’s not unusual, and it’s never too late to fix it right now.

Essential Tips for Persuasive Writing

What is Persuasive Writing?

A Persuasive Essay is a written assignment that seeks to persuade readers to accept a specific point of view by demonstrating why it is superior to others. The project title says it all: your work should convince your reader that the facts you gathered throughout your research back up your assertions and indicates that you are correct when taking sides in a debate.

How to write a Persuasive Essay like a Pro

Know your Audience

If you want to persuade readers to believe and agree with you, you must first understand who you’re talking to. Suppose you’re writing a compelling letter about why standardized testing should be phased out of school systems, for example. In that case, your target audience will certainly be parents: When writing to your target demographic, keep this in mind.

State your Viewpoints

You’ve already perplexed your reader if they have to guess your position. Clearly state your point of view from the start, and keep the rhythm going until the end. In the first paragraph, write a strong and vibrant thesis statement, then use it as a springboard as you develop your argument.

Show Evidence

Including any content in the essay without conducting thorough research can also get you into trouble. Researchers must provide Substantial proof to support their Evidence. Attempt to gather Evidence from a variety of reputable sources. Draw a roadmap with Evidence so that readers will find it easy to read. Never base your decision on speculative information or assumptions.

Support your Argument

Another strong persuasion approach is to pose questions that the reader will be forced to answer for themselves later on, especially if the material offered to aid in that decision is supportive of your point of view.

Anticipate Objections

Raising objections to your claims is one of the most effective ways to persuade others. Your arguments may be clever and fascinating, but if they come out as one-sided, your persuasion efforts will fail. If you can predict and raise the objections that your audience is most likely to make, you may quickly answer those concerns with sound logic and proof.

Strong Conclusion

Researchers must rationally and sensibly derive the conclusion from the previous arguments and ideas. Writers must integrate and unify the information presented in the body paragraphs, summarise the topic’s importance, and carefully review the thesis.


The importance of editing and proofreading cannot be overstated. The person who is writing the essay is less likely to notice mistakes. If you cannot locate the faults, you can contact certified assignment writers directly. These editors and proofreaders will have your essay edited and proofread in no time. These specialists are well-versed in the proper structure of a persuasive essay. These authors can revise your data from a different angle.


Persuasive essays are one of the most widely used types of writing. Authors worldwide utilize this strategy to illustrate a point and persuade their audience that they have a point. That is why, to write a successful essay, you must first learn how to write a persuasive essay outline.

Back to Basics in Writing Research Paper

Writing a research paper might be one of the most fulfilling experiences a student can have in school. A research paper contains in-depth independent research analysis, interpretation, and argument. Writing a research paper can be complicated and recursive, so stick to these rules. 

Selection of Topic

It is critical for students to research and writes about a topic they enjoy. You can explore the Internet for ideas for research paper themes. Each paper section needs research questions, methods, analysis, and discussion.

Research & Gather Information

  • Read, assess, and sketch down your ideas.
  • Please make a list of your favorite websites and bookmark them.
  • Complete bibliographical information, primary vs secondary sources, journals, books, other documents on your worksheet.


Form a Thesis

By presenting your main idea, a thesis statement establishes the objective and position of your piece. Form a thesis that answers the research question if you started with one. The thesis statement should be brief, controversial, and well-organized.

Make an outline

A research paper outline describes the main ideas, arguments, and evidence you want to include, arranged into sections with headings. It’s worthwhile to invest some time developing an organized plan because it can significantly speed up the writing process.

Organizing Research Materials

Organize the materials you’ve acquired by your plan. Analyze your research data critically. Check for accuracy and verify that material is factual, up-to-date, and correct using the best available sources. Highlight the opposing viewpoints that support your thesis

Content Formation

  • Address 3 questions in the research paper introduction: what, why, and how. After reading the introduction, the reader should have a good idea of what the paper is about, why it’s worth reading, and how you’ll support your claims.
  • Most authors struggle with organizing the information offered in their papers, which is why an outline is helpful. However, Keep in mind that the system is just a suggestion; you can be as creative as you like with the order in which you present your data and arguments when writing.
  • The research paper’s conclusion aims to help the reader exit the document’s argument by offering closure. Follow the paper’s flow, concentrating on how it all fits together to prove your thesis. To give the work a sense of completion, make sure the reader understands how you handled the problems mentioned in the introduction.


Revision Process

During the editing and proofreading phase, make sure you’ve completed all necessary tasks and that the paper is as well-articulated as possible.

  • Edit your work for content and make sure it meets all of the requirements mentioned on your assignment page.
  • Check for logical flow and order in the paragraphs.
  • Compare and contrast the introduction and thesis statement with the paragraphs.



Research papers are comparable to academic essays, but they are usually longer and more extensive assignments to evaluate your writing and scholarly research abilities. A research paper requires you to demonstrate a solid mastery of your subject, engage with multiple sources, and add something unique to the conversation.

What are the good Research Topics for various Journals?

Finding a decent topic for the Journal to write about can be one of the most difficult aspects of writing a research paper. This article focuses on five different Research Topics, namely Animal Rights,

Art & art history, Computer Science, Business Studies, and English Literature.

Animal Rights

An animal rights research paper is usually created to demonstrate how humans exploit animals and violate their rights.

  • Preventing animals from being used in Laboratories
  • Animals’ right to be treated with respect – Relevance and Significance
  • What methods should be used to test compounds that may be detrimental to human health?
  • Would advancements in disease treatments have been conceivable without the use of animals? 


Art & Art History

Without delving too deeply into symbols and artists’ ideas, it’s good to conduct detailed research and present accurate facts. Various tools are available to learn more about art history and make studies easier.

  • The Evolution of Art Fairs
  • Comparison of Egyptian and Mesoamerican Pyramids
  • What Makes the Most Famous Conceptual Art Works So Special?
  • How Did Pop Art and the Use of Everyday Objects in Art Be Influenced by Cultural Attitudes?


Computer Science

Every day, technology improves and shrinks in size. A smartphone in the pocket can be as powerful as a laptop. Without question, the advancement of computer science is shaping our future. It’s difficult to count the number of technology and computer science research areas. The most crucial of these, though, is easy to identify.

  • How do Artificial Neural Networks work?
  • Computer Vision using Artificial Intelligence
  • What is the link between The IoT and AI?
  • Why are there so many different Programming Languages?


Business Studies

Business research papers are essential for aspiring company executives and entrepreneurs obtaining a business degree. They can assist in better understanding fundamental economic principles, numerous markets, operational logistics, global events, financial management, and their effects on the worldwide economy. In case you are having problems handling your finances and you are going bankrupt, here you can  The Pope Firm in Tennessee for legal help.

  • Diverse countries have different business cultures.
  • The benefits and drawbacks of Outsourcing in Business
  • What exactly is Consumerism Culture?
  • How Small are Businesses important as a foundation for economics?


English Literature

When it comes to English Literature, the topics you can explore in the novels are virtually endless. Starting wide and making it more particular and engaging for your readers is the easiest way to develop a study topic for your next English literature essay.

  • How is literature used as a propaganda tool?
  • Mythology as a form of literature
  • Shakespeare’s writings
  • In literature, irony and sarcasm are common.



The most obvious choice is to focus on a certain literary style. Classifying literature works, looking for common characteristics that signal that the piece belongs to a specific class, and identifying these characteristics can be challenging, especially when some contested results may or may not belong to this style. However, if you are passionate about the subject of your research, it may be gratifying because you may be surprised to find a plethora of books written in your preferred style.

Response to Reviewer Comments

  • Handling reviewer’s comment?

Reviewer’s comments should be taken positively and provide a scope for improvement.

  • Type of revision

Revisions can be minor or major. Whatever may be the case, it needs to be addressed. Sometimes reviewers write revisions that may span many pages and still are termed as minor. Whether minor or major, comments or revisions are often very error-free and informative. The comments are very clear with no possibility of doubts.

  • Arranging the comments

Comments are sometimes are not in form of a list and are retained with the text. In such a case, the comments should be shorted down and incorporated in a tabular format. The tables should have details of comments and also the response that is been given. All minor comments such as spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, style, and font should be addressed first. By dealing with minor ones first you will realize that maximum comments are being shorted out as we make errors while we write.

Comments should be answered in a well-mannered way; the writing style should be polite and not rough.

The comments should be addressed completely. Never ignore any comment.

Answer the comments with evidence. You must provide supporting evidence for the facts you mention.

Be optimistic that your efforts will be recognized and result in a successful publication.

Guide to Prepare a Perfect Rebuttal Letter

After an author or researcher submits their work for publication, they write a rebuttal letter in response to the comments of reviewers and editors. A manuscript that has been submitted for publication with no requested amendments is rare. A superb academic rebuttal letter can help you persuade reviewers and editors that your paper is excellent and should be published in that journal. During the peer review process, this is often your last chance to underline the quality of your work. So, before you write a rebuttal letter, you should carefully study the reviewer’s remarks and identify the nature of the suggested adjustments and how you should respond to them.

When writing a rebuttal letter, there are a few things to bear in mind. Below are the points:

  1. Appreciate the feedback from the reviewer

Consider the reviewer’s suggestions as a way to improve your work. You must acknowledge that the reviewers have a deeper awareness of the guidelines that authors must follow in order to have their work published.

  1. Express thanks to all of the reviewers

The way you draft your rebuttal letter can have a significant impact on how editors and referees evaluate your revision. They will most likely read the rebuttal letter before actually reading your amended work, therefore if you want them to be on your side, you should not be too brief in your comments, as it may appear rude. As an author, you should be grateful that the reviewers took the time to go over your work before pointing out the adjustments you need to make. Begin your response letter on a positive note, thanking your reviewers for their input.

  1. Respond to all of the editor’s and reviewers’ concerns

Copy every single comment in your rebuttal letter and write your response in a clear and straightforward manner directly after each point. Ensure that none of the reviewers’ or editor’s concerns go unanswered. Even if you disagree with a point or have not implemented the suggested change, please state your position and explain why.

  1. Respond to each question with a point-by-point response

Number the points raised by the reviewers and answer them in order. In the original and updated manuscripts, highlight the corresponding changes in the document or refer to the line numbers. Always keep in mind that editors and reviewers are frequently very busy, so make sure your comments are concise and clear. You should also try to address the referees’ concerns as best you can, but do so succinctly and immediately, with no unnecessary explanations or protracted speeches.

  1. Make a note of the changes you’ve made

When resubmitting your world, you must provide enough information about the changes you’ve made so that reviewers can easily identify the changes you’ve made to your manuscript. If two or more reviewers have made similar comments, direct them to the response.

  1. Complete citations should be included

In your citations, avoid utilizing the first author’s name and the initials et al. Include complete references so that the reviewers may search them up.

  1. Select the Appropriate Finish

Your letter should end on a positive note, letting the referees know that you have done your best to improve the manuscript in light of their suggestions—and that you are willing to make more changes if necessary (if necessary). Furthermore, reviewers and editors should get the impression that you appreciate their efforts and the time they spent rewriting your article.

Responding to Peer Review as an Early Career Scholar

Experience always counts irrespective of the field we belong to. However, experience comes with learning every new scholar at some point has to start handling the review process to proceed in his scientific endeavor.

  • Reading the reviews patiently and respond

The author is a master in his narrow topic. However, the reviewer has the broader experience and expertise therefore you should read in-depth reviews. If there are multiple reviewers then the comments of each reviewer should be balanced out. Also, the author should have a rational approach to understand whether the article is up to the mark to get published.

Emotionally you may not like the comments but nevertheless, you should not underestimate and try to understand the perspective of the reviewer.

Sometimes you’re and reviewer’s opinion may not match the article but don’t get upset, it’s a part of the publication journey. 

  • Celebrate the comments

Comments by reviewers are stepping stones towards successful publication. Sometimes we get a mail asking us to address the reviews and submit them back. This is an achievement as you have not been disqualified or have not faced desktop rejection. If you are getting comments means there is a scope that the article can be a part of the said journal. 

  • Compare the article and comments and then respond

The comments of reviewers can be minor ones that can be easily accommodated. Fix them up and write in the letter to the editor. However, there are some comments that you agree with the reviewer but shall take substantive time to execute. Please mention the changes in the manuscript (rewriting or additional content was added) that have been made. Minor stuff which you don’t agree with should also be part of the letter to the editor. Author those who disagree with the majority of reviewers’ comments should make a clear and authentic argument.

 Write back to the reviewer after you have revised the paper and addressed all the comments. Write clearly the changes you have made to address the reviews also highlight the positive comment of the author.

  • Resubmission

The ball is now in the court of the editor as they can compare the reviewed article with the original article relative to your response letter. The editor can also give the article to a new editor to check his opinion. We cannot control the review process except that we can give our best to address the reviews in a scientific, knowledgeable, and professional manner.

Ideas to Write a Scholarship Essay

If you’re applying for a scholarship, you’ll almost certainly be required to write an essay. Only a small percentage of scholarship programs are exclusively based on an application form. The essay is frequently the most significant element of your application since it reveals who you are and how committed you are to your goals to the scholarship committee. You’ll want to make your scholarship essay as good as it possibly can be. It can be challenging to write a scholarship essay, especially if you want to do it properly. Your essay should astonish the reader and speak directly to the organization’s goals as well as the award’s goals. Experts argue that making a scholarship essay personal and incorporating impactful information are the keys to success.

Below points should be followed while drafting your essay:

Make a list of key points and keywords to include in your presentation

Regardless of the essay prompt, make sure to include all of the essential and important information about your experiences and background that qualifies you for the scholarship. To finish this stage, do some research on the organization you’re applying to and try to locate their mission statement on their website. Make a note of a few essential terms from the goal statement and include them in your essay.

Make an outline

Although not everyone likes making an outline before starting to write, it can be extremely beneficial in this scenario. To begin drafting the outline, start with your list of crucial topics. Telling a narrative is the simplest and most successful technique to write a scholarship essay for many people. You can describe how you came across your favorite book and how it has influenced and inspired you. In your outline, begin with big headings that summarize the basic storyline.

Make a powerful statement that summarizes your arguments

One solid thesis statement that outlines all of the important points should be included. It’s common to begin a piece of writing with this basic statement. The thesis statement does not have to occur at the front or end of your essay, but it should exist someplace to bind all of the separate sections together.

Rewrite, revise, and then rewrite some more

A good writer revises and rewrites their work numerous times. After completing the first write-up, step away from the essay for a day or two and return with new eyes. Make content updates as needed, and pay close attention to spelling and grammar.

Have a friend read your article

Giving your essay to a teacher or college admissions counselor who is experienced with scholarship essays and the college admissions process is ideal. If you don’t have access to such a person, almost anyone with decent reading and writing skills can assist you in improving your essay.

Finalize your write-up

Once you’re satisfied with the write-up, go over it again, paying close attention to structure, spelling, grammar, and whether you addressed all of the committee’s requirements. If you go above the specified word count, you’ll have to make modifications to get back under it. Consider adding more words if you’re considerably under the word count.

Good luck!

Topics that should be avoided when writing a research paper

Selecting a topic for a research paper might be difficult, but there are some characteristics that can help an author to avoid wrong research topics. A topic should be fascinating to the writer/author and helpful to an audience, however; there are some topics that should definitely be avoided. For example personal information and personal stories, topics with a lack of approachable information, too narrow topics, too broad topics and controversial/political topics, same-sex marriage, religion/race, etc.

Below is a list of topics that one should avoid while picking up the research topic:

  1. Beyond scientific comprehension

Some issues, such as those relating to theology, are beyond the purview of scientific understanding; you may be interested in one of these areas, but there will be no outcome.

  1. Personal data and narratives

Unless you’re famous or have at least one book written about you, you can’t write a research paper based on your own biography or life stories. A research paper necessitates conducting research, which necessitates having certain sources to draw from in order to complete it properly.

  1. Topics about which no information is available

This may seem self-evident, but you can’t create a research report about a topic if you don’t have any data. As a result, you won’t have enough information to produce a good report.

  1. Topics that are too narrow

You don’t want to choose a topic that is difficult, if not impossible, to write about simply because it is too restricted. You can simply write about “volcanoes as a future source of energy,” but writing about “how deep Vesuvius is and why it is thus” will be far more difficult because it is just too precise.

  1. Topics that are too broad

You may feel as like you are drowning with information on your subject, yet you are unable to write anything down. That’s because there’s so much information out there that it’s difficult to tell what’s vital from what’s not. In contrast to writing on the economy in general, the free-enterprise system might be a good topic to choose. The economy is a broad term that encompasses a wide range of data and concepts to write about.

  1. Topics that have been proven in the past

Not every research paper needs to make a ground-breaking discovery. However, picking a topic that is apparent or has previously been established isn’t exactly difficult. Choose a topic that is intriguing and requires multiple sources to support it, rather than one that is based on popular information.

  1. Topics with untrustworthy sources

Strong, dependable sources are used in high-quality research articles. They’re no longer reliable if you can only discover information from one source or if the sources you’re using are extremely biased. Make sure you don’t choose a topic that is based on a single point of view, as this can be readily refuted or debunked.


To summarize, you should keep in mind that you will be given a limited amount of time to create a research paper and will have to do it entirely on your own. You can seek assistance from others, but ultimately, writing the research paper is your responsibility, and you must complete it on your own. So pick a realistic topic and limit it down to a manageable size so you can complete it in the allotted time. Before you choose a topic, consider your interests, but bear in mind that if the issue you’re interested in isn’t practical, it’s probably not a smart choice for your research paper. Choose your topic, but rely on your instructor to help you finalize it because she can assist you based on her experience, which you lack.