Writing Sequential Numerical References for a Research Paper

Reference list: Introduction

A formal reference is a published or unpublished source from which information is sought while writing a research paper. A reference list is a list of the information used in the original paper, sorted in the order in which it occurred. It is normally found in the last part of the paper, nevertheless, it can also be found as a footnote or an endnote.

Significance of a Citing your Sources

Referencing is essential for conducting excellent research and for your readers to understand how you conducted your research. Knowing why you need to reference can help you see why it’s critical to know how to reference.

Types of Reference/Citation Styles

A citation style specifies the material that must be included in a citation, as well as the order in which the information is presented, as well as punctuation and another formatting. There are a variety of methods for citing sources from your research. The citation style used can vary depending on the academic discipline.

There are four referencing techniques or conventions that are regularly utilized. The Modern Languages Association, the American Psychological Association, the Harvard, and the Modern Humanities Research Association are the four systems. Further styles used in styling include Oxford, Chicago and Vancouver (numeric).

Numeric style of Reference format

Vancouver is a numbered style. In Vancouver referencing, every data/information is assigned a number that relates to the sequence same as it appears in the text, which is a numeric reference style. The same number is used if the same source is mentioned more than once in the text.

Using references in the manuscript as citations (i.e. in-text citations)

You can enter the number in brackets or as a superscript when adding an in-text citation to your document. Whichever option you use, be sure you maintain consistency throughout your work. e.g. (1) or [1] or 1.

Include the citation number for each piece of work if you want to cite more than one source in a sentence. To connect two integers, use a hyphen. g. There are many studies that have examined the effect of alcohol on cognitive impairment (1,3, 4-7, 9).

Example: These findings were in agreement with the results of previous studies [2,22-24]. It is noteworthy that some researchers have reported that BMI does not correlate with H. pylori incidence [8,23].

Listing references (i.e. reference list at the end of the paper)

It is not necessary to mention the author in the citation in the text while using the Vancouver style, but you must include the author in your reference list at the conclusion. This list appears at the end of the paper, in numerical order same as it appeared in the text.

Example: Pattnaik K, Das K. Property rights, control, and the performance of firms in Indian industry. Journal of Economics 2019;42(1): 109-138.

APA (American Psychological Association) Citation for a Research Paper

Citations: Introduction

Citations are the documentation required in a research paper to get accepted for academic purposes or publications. While writing an article or any academic content, an author must include citations (in-text) whenever they refer to a sentence, paragraph, or quote from another source. It basically acknowledges the fact that the information used in a research paper did not originate with the writer.

Types of Citation

Different types of citations contain a different set of rules on how to cite sources in academic writing. There are certain ways the citations can be arranged in a document: Parenthetical citations, Endnote, Footnote, works cited as Lists, Bibliography, etc.

The most common citation styles are MLA, APA, Chicago, as their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers.

 

APA (American Psychological Association)

APA Style of referencing is the most commonly used form citations in academic and research papers related to social and behavioral sciences by students, researchers, and professionals and it is recommended by American Psychological Association, USA. The APA system updates the referencing guidelines in electronic formats in a separate guide called the APA Manual, which the University students and researchers can use in book format or online through the library.

Disciplines using APA Style include Social Communication, Administration, Business, Education, Political Science, and Psychology.

There are two things to be considered when working with the APA citation style: in-text citations and the reference page. An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). APA style recommends using a reference list for references cited in the text of a paper rather than a bibliography. A reference list includes only those references which were actually cited in the text of the paper. The references must be corresponding to each other.

APA formatting guidelines with Examples

APA in-text citation style

The in-text citation uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Mohanty, 2007). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Mohanty, 2007, p. 77). A paragraph number can be used for websites and e-books as they do not have page numbers.

APA Reference List citation style

  1. Journals and Periodicals

Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your reference list.

Rule:

Author Last Name, First Name Initial. (Publication Date in parenthesis). Article Title. Journal Name (Italicized), Volume (Italicized), Issue number, beginning page-end page. DOI or URL

Example:

Mohanty, B., & Mohammed, A.B.C. (2001). Title of the Paper. Bioscience Reseapro Journals, 15(112), 123-153. DOI: 10.1433005e24/brjda/21d46

  1. Books

Rule:

Name of author (last name, first initial). The date of the publication in parentheses. The italicized title of the book. Edition of the book in parentheses. Name of the Publisher. DOI number or URL or ISBN. Place period after each element.

Example:

May, K.V.R. C., & Abdul, Z. (Eds.). (2018). Title of the Book. Reseapro Academic Press. ISBN 97afqwf28137666.

  1. Website/Online Source

Rule:

Name of author (last name, first initial). (The date of the publication in parentheses). Title of article. Website name. Website URL

Example:

Keay, Y. (1191, June 22). Article Title or Headline. Reseapro News. https://www.reseapronews.com/news/national/1191/06/10/dsd-martin-wdff-fwfn-fwf-for-office-india.html

APA Citation for a Research Paper Overview

Hundreds of reference examples and their respective in-text citations are presented in the 7th edition Publication Manual. The Examples of most common research that writers site are available on this page and other additional examples are available in the Publication Manual.

To cite an appropriate and specific source, first select a category (e.g., Journals) and then select the appropriate type of work (e.g., articles) and follow the relevant example provided under each category.

Please note: When work does not fit within another category that is provided, please use the website’s category.

Benefits of Open Access for Students

What is Open Access?

Open Access is the works that are available freely online. The various kinds of Open Access Content – Research Articles, Images, Videos, Open Educational Resources. In this users are free to retain, reuse, revise, remix and redistribute.

How Students Get Benefits from Open Access?

Students & Professors

  • The more open-access information there is, the more likely you Students to have free access to reference textbooks and journals.
  • Open Access takes one step closer to allowing students from other universities to legally share study materials.
  • It also gives students in developed countries access to study findings.
  • Due to the excessive cost of journal subscriptions, even the largest and most well-funded universities are unable to provide their students with full scholarly records.
  • Students attending smaller or less well-funded colleges and universities must make do with whatever access their library can provide. Community college students, who make up a sizable portion of higher education students, struggle even more.
  • Students in every discipline need access to the most recent studies to receive a comprehensive education in their field of study and to be able to jump right into work after graduation. Due to a lack of research resources, students must rely on readily available knowledge rather than the most applicable.
  • Open Access ensures that students receive the best possible education without being arbitrarily limited.
  • Open Access not only helps Students but also Professors. Professors who don’t have access to the most up-to-date information are unable to carry it into the classroom.
  • With science progressing at such a rapid rate, professors must have access to cutting-edge research and academic journals for teaching Students.
  • Colleges and universities in developing countries face far greater difficulties than their counterparts in the developed world in acquiring the most up-to-date academic literature, and also have inadequate library budgets. Open Access would vastly expand the amount of knowledge accessible to these students while also improving the quality of education available to millions of people.

 

Research Students

  • Many students, especially those in graduate school, seek degrees to become trained researchers. If they go on to become teachers, physicians, lawyers, or entrepreneurs, they will still need access to research to succeed. Students Access to papers disappears with their library card after they graduate. If they take a job at another university, that institution’s level of access will vary significantly from what they need.
  • Researchers in the developed world are unable to contribute to the advancement of science and the humanities because they lack access to relevant journals in their field. With Open Access, there’s no need to stress over whether you’re connected to the campus network or whether your library has a subscription. You have access to the internet from anywhere in the world if you’re online.
  • Open Access helps to lift the profile of research done in developed countries, both locally and internationally.

 

Conclusion

With Open Access, New concepts can be disseminated more quickly and broadly, triggering new research studies and providing a boost to awareness. Scientific research indicates that publishing in Open Access results in more citations and effects because of the global visibility without barriers.

How to Write A Systematic Literature Review?

A systematic analysis is a study that looks at a lot of different research. To address a particular research query, it attempts to collect all available information on a specific subject. Before beginning the systematic review, the authors provide guidelines for determining which evidence should be included or omitted. This reduces the chance of bias and improves the reliability of the results.

A Systematic literature review is a multi-stage method that can be published in the form of an original research article of the same name. Systematic evaluations should include the following:

  • Explicitly state the goals
  • Attempt to classify all studies that meet the eligibility requirements through a rigorous search strategy
  • Determine the validity of the results of the included studies
  • Synthesize the findings of the studies in a systematic way

 

What are the Steps in a Systematic Literature Review?

Phase 1 Systematic Review Planning

Make up a research topic

  • Before you begin your project, consider whether a systematic analysis is needed.
  • Determine if you have enough time and money to perform a thorough analysis. Keep in mind that finishing it could take longer than a year.
  • Form a team of collaborators to assist you.
  • Put your subject into the “Well-Built Clinical Question” structure to start your systematic analysis.

 

Create a Study Plan

  • Select your Review Studies.
  • By screening titles/ abstracts, you will be able to reject those who don’t fulfill your inclusion criteria.
  • Clearly describe the review methodology and eligibility requirements.
  • A thorough search should be conducted.
  • Make a table of contents you will read in detail and those that will be rejected.

 

Phase 2 Systematic Review Execution

Form Protocol

  • A research protocol is a step-by-step plan for investigating a biomedical or health-related issue and formulating the Problem
  • The goals of your research, information on the procedures and processes that will be used, eligibility requirements for individual studies, how data will be collected from individual studies should be included in your systematic review protocol.
  • Review the literature to make sure it has not been done before.
  • Form a Hypothesis and give the review a title.
  • Describe the steps that will be followed by the Reviewer

 

Data Extraction

  • Summarize findings of studies reviewed in a form of a table with References, Study Parameters, Focus, Gap, Findings.

 

Quality & Validation

  • Methods for Quality Evaluation of the Review Studies has an impact on the conclusion, so it is necessary to avoid any bias.
  • Make a table of research.
  • Analyze data for issues including heterogeneity (differences between studies) and sensitivity of results.
  • Consider doing a meta-analysis of the findings.
  • Make a list of studies that were omitted accessible to interested readers.

 

Conclusion

Systematic literature reviews are widely regarded as one of the most effective tools for summarising and synthesizing evidence related to a particular research topic. A systematic literature review aims to classify, critically appraise, and summarise the current evidence concerning an identified issue, similar to conventional literature reviews.

Promoting Your Research Online

How to publish papers quickly?

Universities and academic organizations are now encouraging a web-based practice that they were dubious of just a decade or two ago, and recent studies show that online promotion of advanced research increases citations, contributing to the many benefits that come with higher citation rates. Researchers are looking for an option to share their work online have many options. Publishing a paper becomes time-consuming if you are targeting a Reputed Peer Review-Journal, It takes years to get published. 

How to promote your Academic or Scientific Research Content?

Some of the ways to publish papers are as follows:

Share in Social Media, Make Online Communication

By announcing your published work along with a link to your article on Twitter, Facebook Page, Google+, and other social networking sites, you will warn your followers. Use hashtags related to your topic and tag co-authors or department colleagues who may also want to share your paper to promote sharing.

Profile Updation

Add article information and links to your LinkedIn to highlight your professional achievements and areas of expertise.

Research Platforms

Join a forum like ResearchGate, Mendeley, Academia.edu, CiteULike, or Loop for academic research sharing and networking.

Highlighting Key Points

Consider writing a blog post about your article if you have a personal blog or contribute to a blog in your field.

  • Include keywords in your post to make it more discoverable.
  • your main objective is to build engaging content,
  • Consider your title or headline to be a call-to-action that will entice people to read your article.
  • The quality of your post should be summarised in the title

 

Make your findings public.

The overwhelming majority of potential readers of your articles do not have access to scholarly journals because they are not affiliated with a higher education institution. Since each document has an access cost, the chances of someone reading your paper are slim, even if the title and abstract seem to be intriguing (which they usually aren’t). Owing to budget cuts or embargoes, even future readers in higher education institutions may not have access to several journals (in some cases, over a year-long). So, no matter how eager they are to read your article, it is possible that they will not be able to do so.

Open Access

To help promote your research online, you can post open access versions of your outputs through your institution’s repository (if applicable), forums, and social media sites like LinkedIn, with the added bonus that your followers will be notified whenever you share a new release, bringing their attention to your new posts. These resources make the study more discoverable and accessible to those who want to read it, without any restrictions or barriers. As a result, even though the study hits a variety of markets, it will not be easy to comprehend for all. You’ll need to rethink and change the type of language and format of your paper to make your work, or your subject knowledge, more available.

Conclusion

If you need to demonstrate the scope and possible wider impact of your research study, you’ll need to promote it online.

Benefits of Outsourcing Medical Writing Projects

Outsourcing Medical Writing

Outsourcing scientific and clinical writing assignments lower the staffing needs by lowering the cost of recruiting, training, and retention. Medical device and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly turning to outside vendors to meet their technological and regulatory writing needs for business development.

What are the Stages of Outsourcing?

What And When To Outsource Medical or Scientific Research Paper? 

  • If a team determines that it will need medical writing assistance, the process of outsourcing medical writing activities should begin with a schedule for what documents will be required and when they will be required.

 

Finding And Selecting A Medical Writing Company

  • Ask the right questions and provide the right information to the Medical Writing Company

 

Managing The Services Provided

  • Make sure the writer is an empowered member of the clinical team should be part of managing the ongoing medical writing

 

Evaluating Performance At The End Of The Project

  • It’s crucial to assess the results at the end of the project before deciding whether to work with the same writing company on future projects.
  • Take the opportunity to meet with the main clinical team members and the medical writer after the project’s final activities are completed to share and review everyone’s opinions about how far the partnership went.

 

What are the Benefits of Outsourcing?

Adaptability – The re-appropriated writings from the Medical or clinical research writing firms have a lot of versatility for those who can’t afford to hire their authors.

Increase in profits – When companies outsource to Medical writing firms, they can save money in a variety of ways by minimizing or removing in-house workers and relying on a team of professional outside authors.

Best to focus on your core competency – Most businesses do not specialize in medical writing. The world of medical devices and pharmaceuticals is rapidly changing. By outsourcing, focus can be directed on Core Competency.

Compact writing services – Medical Writers, skilled editors, specialist statisticians, and staff writers make up a competent medical writing team. As a result, you won’t need to employ many people to do the writing, editing, and presentation of the abstract poster. This will help you save even more money.

Documents that adhere to strict regulatory guidelines – Pharmaceutical companies and clinical testing firms must meet the conditions set out by the respective regulatory authorities to introduce a new drug or perform a clinical trial. Medical writing services make it simple to solve this obstacle by sending documents that meet regulatory requirements.

Effective medical communication – Health content writing necessitates knowledge of medical terminologies, as well as experience and technical writing skills. The rethought writing of medical writing experts helps you share your thoughts easily.

Improvement in your sales and services – Medical device ads, product literature, and service brochures can all be outsourced to professional medical writers who can create eye-catching marketing material and increase sales revenue.

Tips for outsourcing medical content writing

  • Clearly describe the need as well as the audience you want to reach.
  • Provide detailed indications
  • outsourcing entails a collaborative effort.
  • Establish realistic deadlines
  • Be ethical 

 

Conclusion

Outsourcing medical writing successfully necessitates selecting medical writers who are not only knowledgeable about the requirements of each paper, but also capable coordinators who can push your clinical teams to present a straightforward, well-argued tale.

 

What are the barriers to post-publication peer review?

Post-publication peer review – doing peer review after the publication of the manuscript. When a paper is published. Everyone in the community starts to read it and comment on it either in conferences or Journal Clubs. It is an informal way of doing Peer Review.

F1000, OpenReview, PubMed Commons, TrueReview, Pubpeer are some of the Post-publication Peer Review Platforms.

 Challenges of Post-publication peer review

Lack of Motivation towards Scientific Researches

Editorial control will always be a vital feature of every open peer review method, including PPPR, as we’ve previously reported. Editors are expected to seek peer feedback promptly (and often submit several reminder emails), as well as provide a sense of “prestige” for being asked to review an article, as a clear acknowledgment of your expertise in that area.

Too many choices – Many platforms and alternative methods of use in communicating reviews. It’s likely that various comments appear on different pages but not on others when multiple copies of a paper exist across multiple platforms. It’s also likely that researchers would experience plagiarism. This mode of communication is possibly more suitable when significant theoretical or methodological shortcomings in published studies have been discovered.

Plagiarism

Allows unqualified referees to smear the Researcher’s original work with unfounded accusations, claims, and lies in the name of free speech.

Risk of non-constructive criticism

Some people may use PPPR to be intentionally confrontational in public, talking down to or intimidating their junior peers. As a result, any alternative or complementary system must mitigate or minimize this negative dynamic, ensure that an accountability process is built into and maintained, and ensure that marginalized groups are encouraged to participate.

 Solutions to Post-publication peer review

  • Offers Opportunities for Corrections Authors receive more Feedback from peers by posting papers online. This should lessen the agony of revise and re-submit.
  • Increases engagement of the Scientific Community for more recognition & career development.
  • Ensures openness by making the analysis publicly accessible to those involved in the study.
  • The technology has made it possible for Scientific Research Papers to be accessible always.
  • After reading the Research Paper, review comments can be posted immediately and shared on social media platforms.
  • Strength & Weakness of Scientific Papers is done real-time globally.

 

Conclusion

Peer review was established to ensure that research papers are well-documented and meet the scientific community’s general standards. However, another aim of peer review has always been to stimulate scientific debate. Post-Publication Peer review allows the broader community to discuss the article in greater depth, providing the open forum that peer review is designed to provide. Using this method would undoubtedly result in a conflict of interest. Peer review often prohibits discussion of a mainstream theory against a competing mainstream theory, and theoretical scientists are often denied the opportunity to do so. PPPR aims to make aspects of the daily research process more accessible to the public. It’s about bringing meaning to published research papers by using the evaluations and criticisms that researchers and others conduct.

What To Do When Your Journal Paper Is Rejected?

Rejection is a Certainty in Academic Journals. Acknowledge your feelings as Normal & Legitimate (Anger, Frustration, Disappointment, Worry). Remember it is the end of your paper not for your research or career.

Reasons for Rejection of Journal Paper

  • Plagiarism– Should be less than 10%
  • Ethics in Publication– Should acknowledge proper sources of support, permission to use data, images
  • The theme of the Journal– Should fall within the Aim & Scope of the Journal
  • Paper is under review at another journal – a single revision process must be done
  • Usage of Poor English– Avoid Grammar or spelling errors
  • Journal Formatting Guidelines– Types of Font, Font Size, Margins, Reference & Styles

 

Technical Reasons

  • Poor Validation– Results will be compared with the Standard Results. Carry out Experimental Analysis
  • Wrong Research Methodology
  • Inconclusive Results – Questions are unanswered
  • Lack of Proper Citations

 

What are the various Criteria in Journal Rejection?

There are multiple criteria checked by individual journals.

  • Always approach a journal that publishes your line of work.
  • A good paper published in the wrong journal leads to rejection.
  • Once you have chosen the appropriate journal, check whether you have chosen a strong problem statement in your article. The objective of your research must be identifiable in the Abstract and must be concluded in your work.
  • Your research and its conclusion must be backed up with scientific experiments.
  • Always use the correct statistical method for analysis and mention the methods in detail.
  • Never edit any real-time images which leads to plagiarism.
  • Cross-check images, graphs, tabulations.
  • Your presentation must be simple and easily understandable.
  • Proofread your manuscript to avoid grammatical errors.
  • Always have sufficient data and test samples to establish & support each statement that you claim in the article. If the data size is small, there is always bias in the results which leads to rejection.
  • The conclusion can be generalized only when there is sufficient sampling done.
  • Carefully scrutinize your article and take expert opinions before submitting the research for publishing.
  • Search for a High-Impact Journal.
  • The cover letter must clearly state the details & purpose.
  • If the research quality does not meet the standards of the scientific society, the research will be rejected.
  • The Published Work must apply to all scenarios, if it is for a special purpose, it must be explicitly mentioned in the aim of the work applies to certain scenarios.
  • Insufficient Citation also leads to rejection.
  • The Scientific manuscript must have a catchy aim and a novel technique that attracts viewers.

 

How to Respond after Rejection of Journal Paper?

  • Show the comments to others.
  • Read the comments carefully.
  • Figure out the underlying reasons for Rejection.
  • Re-evaluate and learn.

 

Conclusion

There is nothing to be ashamed of if your paper is rejected. It is a basic process in Journal Publication and not to take it personally. If rejected, do the following things

  • Do something else to distract yourself & most importantly sleep on it one night.
  • Give yourself 3 days’ time and analyze the Rejection Letter more logically.
  • Consider the other Options
  • Proceed with the next Journal Publication

Roles & Responsibilities of Peer-Reviewers

Peer-Review Process

Peer Review is an influential process of academic journal publication. All Manuscripts are Peer Reviewed by the subject experts.

Before a scholarly work is published or approved, it is reviewed by a group of experts in the same field to ensure that it meets the appropriate criteria.

Stages of Peer-Review

Did you know the Process of Peer-Review?

Initial Check

It is done by the Editor who reads & approves the manuscript for Peer Review Process. The manuscript may be rejected at this level.

Editor-in-chief Review

Experts evaluate the manuscript and see if the scope of the journal is well defined and interesting.

Assigned to Editor With Subject Expertise

Experts who have subject knowledge related to the manuscript evaluate the manuscript.

Peers / Referees

The experts who check the manuscripts are known as Peers or Referees. They check the following things:

  • Quality & Significance of the Manuscript
  • About the Research topic – if it is Interesting and Important
  • Sound Methodology
  • Arriving at Logical Conclusions
  • Checking the Findings are original

Review Return

The Peers give a high-quality review after evaluation of the manuscript.

Editor’s Final Decision

Editors decide if the manuscript is worthy of publishing or not. If approved, they may recommend revisions to the Authors.

Responsibilities of Journal Editors 

Have you ever wondered what Journal Editors do in Peer-Review?

Roles towards Authors 

  • Providing constructive feedback promptly on the scholarly merits and the scientific value of the work.
  • Providing specific suggestions for improvement and stating the details of the journal in a Cover Letter.
  • Maintaining the confidentiality of the review process.

Roles towards Editors

  • Informing the editor immediately if unable to review.
  • Following the editor’s comments and creating an abstract if required.
  • Determining scientific merit, originality, importance & clarity of the hypothesis and scope of the work and indicating ways to improve it.
  • Providing Critical Assessment – Strength & Weakness of Introduction, Methodology, Data Analysis, Results, Discussion & Conclusion.
  • Checking the formatting of the Manuscript and instructing if it is not in proper order.
  • Looking into Internal Consistency of the Manuscript, Writing Style & Figure/ Table Presentation.
  • Checking the Appropriateness of References, Title, Abstracts, and Conclusions.
  • Ensuring that the manuscript adheres to the journal’s guidelines.

Roles towards Readers

  • Assuring that the methodology and results of the review are easily accessible to the readers.
  • Citing sources to assist readers in gathering knowledge about the journal.

Conclusion

The Editor’s decision is crucial in the publication of a journal. The Author, Editor, and Readers are all subjected to peer review. Academic journals rely heavily on peer review for publication.

To conclude, the purpose of Peer Reviewers is to

  • Select the manuscript for the journal
  • Determine the Originality of the manuscript
  • Improve the quality of the published paper
  • Ensures previous work is acknowledged
  • Determine the importance of findings

The best Peer Reviewers tend to view themselves as Mentors rather than Critics.

What Types of Articles Are Published in Academic and Scientific journals?

 

All journals and periodicals publish varied types of content, all generally referred to as articles. However, there are certain technical differences that differentiate the type of publication.

It is important for aspiring authors to understand the different types of publications in order to prepare for one. While choosing a journal for publication, it is also important to understand what type of publication the journal prefers or is presently soliciting. The time period is also a major determinant of what type of publication you should try for.

Types of publication:

Original Research Article: Original research is the most sought after publication; both by authors and also scientific journals and are considered as primary literature. It may be called an Original Article, Research Article, Research, or just Article, depending on the journal. These publications are detailed reporting of original research being presently conducted and conveyed for the first time to the rest of the world. They include hypothesis, background study, methods, results, interpretation of findings, and a discussion of possible implications.

It is also the most difficult to produce as it requires tenacious background research work, and is often a by-product of the actual exercise.

Review article: Academic and scientific journals usually publish two kinds of reviews; literature reviews, often called review articles, and book reviews, which are frequently referred to as reviews. Book reviews are usually solicited by journals from field experts whom they often commission for the review.

Literature reviews are bird’s-eye perspective on the published scholarship in a field of study or narrower area of specialization that provides a critical and constructive analysis of existing published literature in a field, through summary, analysis, and comparison. Scientific journals encourage a specific types of reviews like literature reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses as they are extremely popular with readers. However, one expects a certain level of experience and authority from the author to write such reviews and journals only entertain such entries from select authors.

Brief communications: Brief communications can take the form of short notes, news analysis, letters to editors, Opinions. These publications are marked by their brevity in terms of length, often restricted to 1200-2000 words. Such content has to be also extremely focused on a certain specific aspect with very little scope of theoretical exploration. These types of content are also referred to as ‘Perspectives’and are scholarly reviews or commentaries that present a personal point on widespread notions of ongoing discourse.

Brief communications can be very engaging, especially when directed to an author on a previously published article and if the latter chooses to respond to it. They are also very good sources for references for readers and hence their popularity.

Whatever type of content you choose to write, scientific journals will only publish them if they see value in it for readers. Thus, the quality of the content is critical irrespective of the format and it must enrich the present discourse in the field.