Grammar & Punctuation – adverb formation – English editing.

Many ADJECTIVE can be transformed into ADVERB by the addition of the SUFFIX -ly.
Rules:
 The base rule is that you add -ly to the adjective:
sad = sadly
 If the adjective ends in -ll, just add -y:
full = fully
 Most adjectives of one syllable that end in -y are regular, with the exception of gay = gaily
 For two-syllable adjectives that end in -y, replace the final -y with the letters -ily:
happy = happily
 Adjectives that end with a consonant followed by -le, replace the final -e with -y:
terrible = terribly
 Adjectives that end in -ly cannot be transformed by adding -ly, instead, use a short phrase:
friendly = in a friendly way
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Grammar & Punctuation – Formation – English editing.

Many adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding –ly:
slow+ly = slowly
Not all adverbs end in –ly, and some of the commonest adverbs are not formed in this way. For example:
afterwards rather very .
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Demodicosis.

Demodicosis is a infestation caused by mite from Demodex species, belongs to class arachnida called Demodex folliculorum or Demodicid, It is a tiny mite that lives in the pores of hair follicle. Demodex folliculorum is commonly found on the nose, forehead, scalp, cheek, chin, and eyelashes of adult and it’s number continue to increase with the increasing age of an individual and is often associated with blackheads, acne , rosacea, and skin irritations.
Adult Demodex folliculorum has an appearance of worm with four pair of short legs. It’s size ranges from 0.1mm to 0.4 mm; has a needle like mouth. The body is covered with layer of scales which helps the mite to anchor itself in to the hair follicle. The mite doesn’t have the excretory system. The mite copulates outside the hair follicle then female mite moves to a new hair follicle and lays up to 25 eggs in the hair follicle. The larva grows in to a adult mite in the hair follicle. During the day the mite stays in the hair follicle and feed on sebaceous secretion, and at night, it come out of the hair follicle onto the surface to the skin to mate and female mite moves to a new follicle and lays eggs over there. The whole cycle takes about14 to 18 days.
The mite stay in the hair follicle with head-down. When too many mites get buried into the same follicle, it may cause the hair fall and induce inflammation around the hair follicle.
The infection by demodex mite depends on the ability of individuals gene to induce immune response against the mite. The body reacts to the existence mites and induces an inflammatory response as it tries to rebuff the mites.
It has been observed that eighty-eight percent of individuals with thin hair have Demodex Folliculorum in their body, in contrast to 9% in individuals with normal hair density. The incidence of demodex in the hair follicle of a individual varies with age , it has been reported that about 25% of demodex is seen in about 20 years of age, 30% in 50 years , and up 50% in 80 years age.

Demodicids are mostly present in adults and they are usually harmless; they do not transmit diseases to others by close contact but infection occurs when large number of these mites congregate in a single follicle. It produces itching and inflammatory lesion at the site of hair follicle, as it is commonly found on the face, it’s often regarded as the ‘face mite’.Infection is commonly noticed in adults with oily skin; persons using heavy cosmetics, and those who don’t wash off cosmetics thoroughly.
The demodex infection is characterized by itchy erythematous edematous papules, pustules on the face and scalp. The infestation may be frequently free of symptoms. However, Demodicidosis is characterized by the presence of an erythematous papulo- pustular rash on the face. The inflammation is either acute and chronic in nature. Our observation was also similar but our patients had extensive areas of involvement face, scalp, back, ‘V’ area of the chest, axilla and forearm.
Treatment with topical Permethrine5% for 5-7 consecutive days, and the other drugs which have been used effectively are Gamma benzinehexachliride, Oral Ivermectin, Metronidazole 2% cream and oral. In our personal cases we had used Permethrine 5% topical cream effectively with rapid clearance of symptoms and lesions.
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Sweet’s Syndrome(SS).

Sweet’s syndrome is eponym for acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis coined by Dr Sweet from Plymouth, England, who first described this condition in 1964. It is characterized by acute fever, leukocytosis; with sudden appearance of tender erythematous papules, nodules, and plaques. The edema is so intense that the papules and nodules often resemble vesicles so often the description used for the papule is pseudovesicle. The plaques are formed by coalition of papules that gives an arcuate appearance. Sweet’s syndrome is common in middle-aged women, but men, children are also be affected. Hematological investigation shows neutrophilia with diffuse infiltrate of neutrophils in the middle and upper dermis of skin biopsy.
Sweet’s syndrome is characterized by four features: tender erythematous plaques with arcuate border and the plaque studded with pseudovesicles. The other associated features are: fever; conjunctivitis, leukocytosis, and papillary dermal infiltration of neutrophils in the skin biopsy. Fever and neutrophilia is not a consistent feature. The diagnosis is mostly based on the typical skin eruption and characteristic histological finding in skin biopsy.
Based on the clinical setting the SS is classified into classical or idiopathic sweet’s syndrome, malignancy-associated SS and Drug-induced Sweet’s syndrome. Classical Sweet’s syndrome (CSS) usually presents in women between the ages of 30 to 50 years, it is often preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection and may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy. The malignancy-associated Sweet’s syndrome (MASS) can occur as a paraneoplastic syndrome in patients with an established cancer or individuals, whose Sweet’s syndrome is related hematologic dyscrasia in malignant associated SS. The dermatosis in MASS may precede, follow, or appear concurrently with the diagnosis of malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is acute myelogenous leukemia and approximately 20% of cases are associated with hematogenous malignancy. Drug-induced Sweet’s syndrome (DISS) most commonly occurs in patients who are receiving granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, hematopoietic growth factor and the lesions typically occur when the patient has leukocytosis and neutrophilia. SS may precede 3 months to 6 years before the manifestation of any associated disease or malignancy, so these patients needs to kept under prolonged follow up and regular clinical and hematological evaluation to know the early development of these condition. Because of this, it is believed to be reactive phenomenon or cutaneous marker of systemic diseases. At the same time, it is also suggested to be having genetic association but no genetic link has been identified till today.
The skin lesions predominantly occurs on the head, neck, legs, and arms, and particularly on the fore arm and cheeks. Development of fever (50%); arthralgia or arthritis (62%); eye involvement in the form of conjunctivitis or iridocyclitis (38%); and oral aphthus (13%) has been noted. Other organs affected are: bones, nervous system, kidneys, intestines, liver, heart, lungs, muscles and spleen. Rarely sweet’s syndrome lesions may turn bluish or grey and form abscess-like nodule and ulcerates known as ‘pustular vasculitis.
Hematological investigations of these patients frequently shows neutrophilia (in less than 50%), elevated ESR (greater than 30 mm/hr) (in 90%), and a slight increase in alkaline phosphatase (in 83%) cases, C-reactive protein (CRP); and p-ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody) is some. Skin biopsy shows mixed infiltrate of polymorphonuclear cells with nuclear fragmentation and histiocytes in the mid and papillary dermis of skin biopsy. The infiltrate is predominantly perivascular with swollen endothelial cell, and vessels, however, changes like: thrombosis; fibrin deposits, complement, or immunoglobulins are seen within the vessel walls; red blood cell extravasation ; inflammatory infiltration of vessel walls are absent in early lesions, unlike vasculitis. But, the features of vasculitis do not exclude the diagnosis of SS.

Sweets syndrome responds to systemic corticosteroids given at the dose of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight per day. It cases rapid improvement of the symptoms and skin lesions, so it’s regarded as the “gold standard” in the treatment for SS. The skin eruption, increase nerutrophil count and fever improve within 72 hours of treatment with corticosteroid. The complete clearance of skin lesions takes about 3 to 9 days, however, frequent recurrences is seen in one-third cases. Corticosteroids are tapered over 2 to 6 weeks. The disease may clear spontaneously in some patients. Other drug effective is oral potassium iodide, colchicines. dapsone, doycycline, clofazimineand and cyclosporine. These drugs are indicated, when the use of steroid is contraindicated. Our cases were given corticosteroid with complete clearance of their lesions with no relapse after discontinuation of corticosteroid.
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Grammar & Punctuation – adverb use with adjectives and other adverbs – English editing.

Adverbs can also be used to MODIFY adjectives and thus form ADJECTIVE PHRASE:
ADVERB ADJECTIVE
very easy
rather attractive
They can work in a similar way with other adverbs to make ADVERB PHRASE:
ADVERB ADVERB
quite soon
extremely slowly
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Grammar & Punctuation – adverb use as adverbials – English editing.

They are often used as sentence ADVERBIALS, or ADJUNCTS, providing information about, for example, place, time, and manner:
 PLACE
here away somewhere
 TIME
soon already still
 MANNER
easily deftly slowly.
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Grammar & Punctuation – adjunct – English editing.

Adjuncts are ADVERBIALS that add more information to a sentence. They can provide additional information about:
 Where things happen
At low tide you can cross the bays on the beach.
 When things happen
I cannot sleep at night.
 How things happen
I found out how to do this by accident.
 Why things happen
No one is turned away because of a lack of means.
 The purpose of an action
I still send her a Christmas card each year for old times’ sake.
 Condition (If this happens, then that happens.)
Leslie had left no letter for me to read in the event of his death.
 Concession (Even if this happens, still that happens.)
Despite all its efforts, America still has its racists.
 Degree (Answering the question ‘How much?’)
I wouldn’t worry at all.
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Grammar & Punctuation – adjective phrase – English editing.

An adjective phrase is a group of words built up round an adjective. There are two main ways in which this is done.
 An ADVERB is placed in front of the adjective:
‘He’s a very remarkable man, ‘said Alison.
ADVERB ADJECTIVE
ADJECTIVE PHRASE
The adverb MODIFIES the adjective by changing its meaning. Very is the commonest adverb used in this way. Others are:
rather quite fairly
You can have more than one adverb in front of the adjective. For example:
I’m really rather busy at the moment.
 Sometimes words are placed after the adjective to modify it in a similar way:
ADJECTIVE MODIFIER(S)
slow enough
intrigued by the project
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Grammar & Punctuation – Using commas – English editing.

When two or more adjectives are used in a list the question arises: should they be separated by commas? There are no clear-cut rules about this but the following guidelines may help.
No comma is needed to separate adjectives of different types, e.g. a qualitative and a classifying adjective:
a big black dog
Use a comma between two or more qualitative adjectives:
Long, slender legs
If the adjectives are all classifying adjectives, use commas if the adjectives all refer to the same class:
English, French, and Spanish editions
a tall, conical lid
Otherwise do not use commas:
Italian Renaissance architecture.
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Grammar & Punctuation – Qualitative and classifying – English editing.

Some adjectives describe the qualities of a person, thing, or idea: they tell us about its qualities – whether it was large or small, red or green. For example:
a stupendous achievement
an exciting proposal
These are referred to as qualitative adjectives.
Other adjectives help to divide persons, things, or ideas into classes; they tell us which of a number of groups they fall into – nuclear or non-nuclear? annual, biennial, or triennial?
the French language
an annual event
Such classifying adjectives cannot usually be graded and they do not normally have comparative or superlative forms. So it would be odd to say, for example:
It was a very annual event.
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