Grammar & Punctuation – adjunct – English editing.

Adjuncts are ADVERBIALS that add more information to a sentence. They can provide additional information about:
 Where things happen
At low tide you can cross the bays on the beach.
 When things happen
I cannot sleep at night.
 How things happen
I found out how to do this by accident.
 Why things happen
No one is turned away because of a lack of means.
 The purpose of an action
I still send her a Christmas card each year for old times’ sake.
 Condition (If this happens, then that happens.)
Leslie had left no letter for me to read in the event of his death.
 Concession (Even if this happens, still that happens.)
Despite all its efforts, America still has its racists.
 Degree (Answering the question ‘How much?’)
I wouldn’t worry at all.
For Scientific english editing and Medical Writing Services visitwww.manuscriptedit.com

Grammar & Punctuation – adjective phrase – English editing.

An adjective phrase is a group of words built up round an adjective. There are two main ways in which this is done.
 An ADVERB is placed in front of the adjective:
‘He’s a very remarkable man, ‘said Alison.
ADVERB ADJECTIVE
ADJECTIVE PHRASE
The adverb MODIFIES the adjective by changing its meaning. Very is the commonest adverb used in this way. Others are:
rather quite fairly
You can have more than one adverb in front of the adjective. For example:
I’m really rather busy at the moment.
 Sometimes words are placed after the adjective to modify it in a similar way:
ADJECTIVE MODIFIER(S)
slow enough
intrigued by the project
For Scientific english editing and Medical Writing Services visitwww.manuscriptedit.com

Grammar & Punctuation – Using commas – English editing.

When two or more adjectives are used in a list the question arises: should they be separated by commas? There are no clear-cut rules about this but the following guidelines may help.
No comma is needed to separate adjectives of different types, e.g. a qualitative and a classifying adjective:
a big black dog
Use a comma between two or more qualitative adjectives:
Long, slender legs
If the adjectives are all classifying adjectives, use commas if the adjectives all refer to the same class:
English, French, and Spanish editions
a tall, conical lid
Otherwise do not use commas:
Italian Renaissance architecture.
For Scientific english editing and Medical Writing Services visitwww.manuscriptedit.com

Grammar & Punctuation – Qualitative and classifying – English editing.

Some adjectives describe the qualities of a person, thing, or idea: they tell us about its qualities – whether it was large or small, red or green. For example:
a stupendous achievement
an exciting proposal
These are referred to as qualitative adjectives.
Other adjectives help to divide persons, things, or ideas into classes; they tell us which of a number of groups they fall into – nuclear or non-nuclear? annual, biennial, or triennial?
the French language
an annual event
Such classifying adjectives cannot usually be graded and they do not normally have comparative or superlative forms. So it would be odd to say, for example:
It was a very annual event.
For Scientific english editing and Medical Writing Services visitwww.manuscriptedit.com

Grammar & Punctuation – But.

 Some adjectives can only be used predicatively; they cannot be used attributively. You can say:
She was alone.
 but you cannot say:
I saw an alone woman.
 Some adjectives can only be used attributively; they cannot be used predicatively. You can say:
It was a mere skirmish.
 but you cannot say:
The skirmish was mere.
For Scientific english editing and Medical Writing Services visitwww.manuscriptedit.com

Grammar & Punctuation – adjective – English editing.

Adjectives are words that refers to the qualities of people, things, or ideas, or which group them into classes.
 Most adjectives can be used with a noun and usually come immediately before it in the sentence:
a blue flower
a slow train
 When adjectives are used in this way they are said to MODIFY the noun: this use is called ATTRIBUTIVE.
 Most adjectives can be used after verbs like be, seem, appear in sentences like this:
The test was positive.
 In such sentences the adjective forms the COMPLEMENT of the sentence and completes the meaning of the sentence SUBJECT.
This use is called PREDICATIVE.
 Many adjectives can be GRADED by adding a modifier before or after them:
a very slow grower
MODIFIER ADJECTIVE
 Many adjectives have a comparative and a superlative form:
ABSOLUTE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
sad sadder saddest
unusual more unusual most unusual.
For Scientific english editing and Medical Writing Services visitwww.manuscriptedit.com

Grammar & Punctuation – Forms of address – English Editing.

The commonest titles used in addresses are:
Miss Mr Mrs Ms
Mr and Mrs are straightforward to use. Mr is used for all men who have no other title, while Mrs is used for married women, Women who are not married can be addressed in letters as Miss, but some women prefer Ms. A number of married women also prefer to be addressed as Ms. If you are in a situation where you do not know the preferences of the person you are writing to, then it is safest to use Mrs for married women and Ms for unmarried women.
Increasingly, however, these forms of address are omitted; instead many people prefer to use a first name followed by a surname. The title Miss particularly is much less used than it was in the past.
The commonest professional title is Dr for doctors (both medical doctors and people who have a higher university degree). Members of the clergy are addressed as The Reverend, abbreviated to Revd (or Rev.).
For Scientific english editing and Medical Writing Services visitwww.manuscriptedit.com

Grammar & Punctuation – addresses.

Styles for the presentation of addresses in letters and on envelopes have changed over the years. Recommended practice is to set addresses with the left hand end of lines square (‘left justified’) and without any punctuation:
Oxford University Press
Great Clarendon Street
OXFORD
OX2 6DP
The postcode is placed separately, on a line of its own, except in the case of London addresses, where it is normally placed on the same line as London:
LONDON WC1 6GE .
For Scientific english editing and Medical Writing Services visitwww.manuscriptedit.com

Grammar & Punctuation – It+passive.

Some writers like to begin a sentence with It, followed by the passive. For example, the following sentence concerns the options available to a woman who has been attacked:
It is considered that in the last resort it is to civil remedies that she should have recourse.
This is ‘lawyer talk’. It is better to be direct and use the active voice:
We believe that in the last resort she will have to sue her attacker.
In some situations, however, the construction can be useful:
It is believed that similar reserves exist along the coast.
The writer may well not have a clear idea of exactly whose opinion is being quoted, although it is evident that the belief is widespread or well established.
For Scientific english editing and Medical Writing Services visitwww.manuscriptedit.com