Pass= (1) go across: We passed the place where the accident had occurred.(2) move past: He passed his teacher in the hall.(3) to come to an end: The water crisis passed.(4) be approved: The bill passed the house.(5) transmit information: Please pass the information to all of your friends.

You spend your holidays/a period of time somewhere (Not pass): We spent a lazy afternoon down by the river.

When pass is used in connection with time, it is usually intransitive: Two weeks passed and there was still no reply.

In sentences about the passage of time, the subject of pass is always a time phrase: Another five minutes passed and the taxi still didn’t appear. This pattern is used mainly in narrative styles.

Pass up = when you give a piece of written work to a teacher, lecturer, etc., you hand it in: All assignment have to be handed in by Monday 3rd October.


Invent = create a machine, instrument, system or process, which has not existed before: ‘Who invented the telephone?’ ‘The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793.’

Discover = find or find out something for the first time: ‘Penicillin was discovered almost by accident.’ ‘I’ve just discovered a new way of cooking pasta.’


Intend = plan to do something: ‘I intend to arrive early and make sure that I get a seat.’

Tend = (i) be likely or true in most causes: ‘At that age, girls tend to be more mature than boys.’ (ii) have a tendency or disposition to do or be something: ‘She tends to be nervous before examination.’


Inhabit = (usually passive) lives in a place or area, especially for a long time or permanently: ‘The island is mainly inhabited by sheep.’ ‘The mountainous regions are still inhabited by indigenous tribes.’

Occupy = use or live in a room, house or building for any length of time: ‘Is that seat occupied?’ ‘The flat below was occupied by a young couple.’


Inferior= of or characteristic of low rank or importance; poor in quality: ‘An inferior product’

Inferior/superior to (NOT than): ‘To suggest that women doctors are in some way inferior to their male counterparts is scandalous.’ ‘Why do they think themselves so superior to the rest of us?’


Independent= (1) independent (not subject to control by others) of somebody/something (NOT from): ‘Now-a-days young people want to be independent of their parents.’ (2) free from external control and constraint: ‘She is a very independent person.’


Impulse = a sudden desire to do something: ‘I walked out of the classroom on an impulse.’ ‘It’s unwise to act on impulse.’

Inspiration = (a source of) creative energy: ‘The inspiration for these early poems came from his relationship with Lucy Potter.’


The verb immigrate (= migrate to a foreign country and change residency) is seldom used. Instead people tend to use immigrant and immigration (nouns): ‘When jobs became scarce, the number of new immigrants suddenly decreased.’ ‘Immigration has decreased in recent years.’

Emigrate = leave one’s own country for a new one: ‘His parents emigrated from Scotland to Canada in 1933.’


Imitate = do something in exactly the same way that someone else does it: ‘Have you heard him trying to imitate an Englishman speaking French?’ ‘He walks as if he is trying to imitate Donald Duck.’

Copy = do the same thing as someone else: ‘As soon as I began cycling to work, people started copying me.’ ‘His little sister wants to copy him all the time.’


Unlike but, however is an adverb (NOT a conjunction) and is used only in formal styles: ‘I was hoping to deal with this matter quickly. However, the situation is more complicated than I thought.’ ‘The newspapers always carried stories of new advances and glorious victories. In reality, however, the war was not going well.’