Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are contagious pathogens responsible for severe respiratory infection in humans and animals worldwide. Upon detection of IAV infection, host immune system aims to defend against and clear the viral infection. Innate immune system is comprised of physical barriers (mucus and collectins), various phagocytic cells, group of cytokines, interferons (IFNs), and IFN-stimulated genes, which provide first line of defense against IAV infection. The adaptive immunity is mediated by B cells and T cells, characterized with antigen-specific memory cells, capturing and neutralizing the pathogen.
Ever skip breakfast or indulge in a late-night dinner? Turns out, your meal timing might be impacting your heart health in a big way! It found associations between meal timing and cardiovascular disease risk. Late breakfast: Skipping or delaying breakfast was linked to a 6% higher risk of cardiovascular disease per hour of delay. Late dinner: […]
The rising interest in macroalgae cultivation for food, fuel, and bio-products faces persistent challenges in large-scale, sustainable production. To maximize benefits, fundamental issues must be addressed. A plan suggests transitioning to an environmentally sustainable aquaculture system using non-toxic nanoparticles and genetic enhancement. Challenges persist in economically feasible and sustainable cultivation across regions, requiring innovation in […]
Statistics: It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the collection of data, its analysis, interpretation, presentation and sequential organization. In simple terms, it deals with philosophy, logic, and expression of data. Who does the statistical review? Statistical review is basically done by the expert statisticians or authors and journal editors with statistical knowledge. […]