Qatar University researchers have made advancement in creating living heart valves that can grow after implantation in the human heart. The bioengineering cardiac valves were developed using a mix of nanotechnology, 3D printing, and tissue engineering. The valves shall be inserted into the body where they continue to grow until the valve is fully integrated with the native tissues of the patient. The process showed that the tissue-engineered heart valves imitate the functions of natural heart valves, effectively opening and closing at speeds and pressures close to those available commercially. The researchers plan to test the valves in living animals under different conditions to determine whether they are safe for humans to examine.
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According to a new study combining drugs used to treat bipolar disorder and migraines to a blood pressure medicine reversed some aspects of breast cancer in the offspring of mice at high risk of the disease because of the high-fat diet fed to their mothers during pregnancy. Valproic acid was the main drug in the study protocol, which inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC), an essential gene epigenetic silencer. The research finding indicates how impactful the addition or subtraction from DNA of an epigenetic methyl group can be along with the diet which plays a major role in cancer risk patients.
Doctors at Duke University Hospital in America have performed the country’s first-ever adult heart transplant through a process called donation after circulatory death (DCD). Traditionally, heart transplants rely on donations after brain death while the rest of their body continues to function, to perform the procedure. On the contrary, the approach used at Duke relies on hearts that have stopped beating and are essentially revived using a machine called the TransMedics Organ Care System. According to the surgeons involved, the process could expand the heart transplant donor pool by as much as 30%.
A team of researchers from UT Southwestern has developed a software that employs Artificial Intelligence to recognize cancer cells from digital pathology images. The software named as ConvPath, identify cells based on their appearance in the pathology images using an AI algorithm that learns from human pathologists. The algorithm effectively converts a pathology image into a “map” that displays the three-dimensional distributions and interactions of tumor cells, stromal cells, and lymphocytes in tumor tissue. The researchers believe that such information can help doctors customize treatment plans and pinpoint the right immunotherapy.
A team of researchers from the Stanford University School of Medicine has developed a new method for estimating a person’s age using the proteins circulating in the blood. The scientists refer to it as the’ proteomic clock’ that relies on protein levels that rise and fall in the lifetime of a person. The scientists conclude that such changes in the levels of various proteins may not only characterize the aging process, but may also possibly cause it. They developed the clock by looking at composite levels of proteins within groups of people rather than doing so individually. The study proved capable of predicting people’s ages within a range of three years.
Reference Link: https://www.futurity.org/aging-protein-levels-blood-2226992/
Superconducting circuits rely on an electronic component known as the Josephson junction, allowing them to manipulate quantum information and communicate with photons. Using a stimulated Josephson non-linearity, a team of researchers at Princeton University, Northwestern University, and the University of Chicago directly operated an oscillator. By operating it as an isolated two-level system, the team achieved quantum control of an oscillator by modifying its Hilbert space. The researchers believe that the new approach for controlling oscillators will allow the production of substantially more energy-efficient electronic components than most of the chips used today.
Researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have developed an innovative new circuit that allows for precise computing without the need for electricity. The novel design instead relies on magnetic waves- an advance that ignites hope towards practical magnetic-based devices, which have the potential to compute far more efficiently than electronics. The new circuit design offers a path to “spintronic” devices that use little electricity and practically generate no heat. Researchers assume that such interference-based spintronic devices, like quantum computers, could execute highly complex tasks that conventional computers struggle with.
Scientists at UCLA have discovered a protein produced by a gene known as MLLT3 and its connection to the self-renewal of human blood stem cells. The scientists observed that activating the protein causes blood cells to self-renew at least twelvefold in laboratory conditions. The finding which was published in the journal Nature is very much significant as cancers such as leukemia can be effectively treated using blood stem cells, also known as Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), produced outside the human body. Moreover, it could serve as an alternative to existing treatment options for many inherited blood diseases as well as bone marrow transplants.
According to new research published in the journal Immunity, neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine communicate with T cells to intensify allergic inflammation in the lungs of young mice but not older mice. The findings rationalize that children are more susceptible to developing allergic asthma than adults. An estimated 6 million children have allergic asthma, making asthma one of the most common long-term diseases of childhood. By emphasizing the significant role of interactions between the nervous system and the immune system in childhood asthma, the results could lead to new approaches for treating the common chronic disease.