What To Do When Your Journal Paper Is Rejected?

Rejection is a Certainty in Academic Journals. Acknowledge your feelings as Normal & Legitimate (Anger, Frustration, Disappointment, Worry). Remember it is the end of your paper not for your research or career.

Reasons for Rejection of Journal Paper

  • Plagiarism– Should be less than 10%
  • Ethics in Publication– Should acknowledge proper sources of support, permission to use data, images
  • The theme of the Journal– Should fall within the Aim & Scope of the Journal
  • Paper is under review at another journal – a single revision process must be done
  • Usage of Poor English– Avoid Grammar or spelling errors
  • Journal Formatting Guidelines– Types of Font, Font Size, Margins, Reference & Styles

 

Technical Reasons

  • Poor Validation– Results will be compared with the Standard Results. Carry out Experimental Analysis
  • Wrong Research Methodology
  • Inconclusive Results – Questions are unanswered
  • Lack of Proper Citations

 

What are the various Criteria in Journal Rejection?

There are multiple criteria checked by individual journals.

  • Always approach a journal that publishes your line of work.
  • A good paper published in the wrong journal leads to rejection.
  • Once you have chosen the appropriate journal, check whether you have chosen a strong problem statement in your article. The objective of your research must be identifiable in the Abstract and must be concluded in your work.
  • Your research and its conclusion must be backed up with scientific experiments.
  • Always use the correct statistical method for analysis and mention the methods in detail.
  • Never edit any real-time images which leads to plagiarism.
  • Cross-check images, graphs, tabulations.
  • Your presentation must be simple and easily understandable.
  • Proofread your manuscript to avoid grammatical errors.
  • Always have sufficient data and test samples to establish & support each statement that you claim in the article. If the data size is small, there is always bias in the results which leads to rejection.
  • The conclusion can be generalized only when there is sufficient sampling done.
  • Carefully scrutinize your article and take expert opinions before submitting the research for publishing.
  • Search for a High-Impact Journal.
  • The cover letter must clearly state the details & purpose.
  • If the research quality does not meet the standards of the scientific society, the research will be rejected.
  • The Published Work must apply to all scenarios, if it is for a special purpose, it must be explicitly mentioned in the aim of the work applies to certain scenarios.
  • Insufficient Citation also leads to rejection.
  • The Scientific manuscript must have a catchy aim and a novel technique that attracts viewers.

 

How to Respond after Rejection of Journal Paper?

  • Show the comments to others.
  • Read the comments carefully.
  • Figure out the underlying reasons for Rejection.
  • Re-evaluate and learn.

 

Conclusion

There is nothing to be ashamed of if your paper is rejected. It is a basic process in Journal Publication and not to take it personally. If rejected, do the following things

  • Do something else to distract yourself & most importantly sleep on it one night.
  • Give yourself 3 days’ time and analyze the Rejection Letter more logically.
  • Consider the other Options
  • Proceed with the next Journal Publication

How to Write a Review Article for a Scientific or Academic Journal

Writing a peer review for a journal publication is a very important job. Any journal referring to you for peer review requests your expertise to judge if a review article meets the academic standards for publication. However, peer review is not like evaluating a submission by a student under you. Every reviewer needs to balance the perspective of the author of the publication along with the requirements of the journal.

How to approach reviewing an article

  • Start with first understanding the requirements of the journal. Most journals provide very specific instructions about the types of review articles they publish and what they expect from a reviewer. An academic journal for humanities might want narrative reviews based on the reviewer’s extensive knowledge and experience, whereas a scientific journal may prefer systematic reviews. It is best to discuss with the journal editor what exactly they are looking for from a reviewer.

 

  • Read the review article with an open mind and several times. Do remember the job is not to draft the review article as you would write it. Rather, you have to understand and respect the author’s academic Even if you may disagree with some arguments of the author, it is the author’s right to publish his arguments as long as the author is giving proper academic arguments and evidence. Your job is to ensure the review article is academically sound for journal publication.

 

  • While giving feedback to the author on the review article, remember that your ultimate goal is to discuss what the author needs to do in order to qualify for publication. The point is not to nitpick the manuscript but provide constructive and critical academic feedback that the author can use to improve their study for publication in the journal. Write the type of review you would like to receive if you were the author.

 

  • Draft a template for your review. Start with a summary of the review article that reflects what you understand of the article. This is a good start as it helps sync your thoughts with the author, and also helps the journal Follow it up with a listing of minor or major issues with the review article. Major issues refer to gaps in arguments, academic critique or fundamental questions with the research methodology, etc. Minor issues are missing or misplaced references, technical clarifications, etc. a reviewer can also add some comments addressed to only the journal editor, about issues with language, presentation, any problems with why this review article does not match the journal objectives or any such matters which you want to convey to the journal.

 

Conclusion

A reviewer has a very critical and moral responsibility. It is also an interesting job as it allows one access to the most latest academic work even before it is published. An empathetic and constructive reviewer can help both a journal and an author enrich their academic credentials.

Proofreading service provider

Written works, publications, or writings, for the purpose of either academic or business, should ideally be completely free from errors related to format, grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc., before the final piece is produced.

Proof Communications writes, copy edits and proofreads successful tenders, proposals and award entry; we write interesting thought leadership, blogs and case studies; and we proofread annual reports, sustainability reports, RAPs, PDSs and IPO documents for companies worldwide.

For academic purposes, such as a dissertation, this is essential because mistakes in the presentation, most often result in deducted marks. While in businesses, the best, error-free work produced, portrays the concerned business in the best light.

Why you must hire a proofreading service provider?

Producing any written document is stressful work, particularly if there is a deadline. There is a tendency to make mistakes if the work is rushed. It therefore helps to have a professional look through the work to find out and correct the mistakes, if any.

The importance of hiring a proofreader

In employing the services of a proofreading agency, for any written work, its reputation and quality of work, for previous customers, should be taken into account.

Many companies who offer this service give a personalized quote to every customer and they base this on the length of whatever has been written and needs to be checked, because a very high level of concentration is needed to make sure the job is done properly and correctly to the highest standards. The exact price is hence known this way and is a better way of sorting out pricing without being surprised by extra costs.

One possible question for the chosen agency is about the fields they specialize in, or whether their proofreaders are able to cover a variety of subjects. It always helps to have a proofreader who understands the exact area the publication has been written for.

Another important aspect to be mutually sorted out is a time frame. The company should provide a date, on which the proofread copy, along with all necessary amendments would be received back. Most written work in today’s age is done on the computer. On completion, it can be emailed to a proofreading agency instantly so that it can be checked and sent back, as soon as possible.

Another main advantage of doing it this way is that any revisions can be made quickly and easily, with these being sent back with the fully revised copy.

This serves for future reference, so that the mistakes aren’t repeated. Some agencies actually use specialized software to aid their work which helps in getting it done more quickly. This is especially true when it comes to longer documents.

On some occasions, requiring the work to be finished as quickly as possible, the agency can be informed and it can be found out whether or not the finished piece can be produced within the stipulated time.

Thus, using the services of a proofreading agency would be advantageous to an author, before he/she sends their work to the publisher.

You can visit our website to know more about proofreading as well as other editing and writing services.

Email

Email is a very swift method of correspondence. Through an email one can send data or information across the world to multiple recipients in a few seconds, at a fraction of the cost of the courier or postal charges. This is a great advantage but can be a drawback too. As once the sent button is hit there can be no recalling of the information sent. Though some software is found which can retrieve a sent email but it is not popular and easily available.

An email can be seen and read simultaneously by many recipients, open to a more constructive criticism and feedback. Another disadvantage of emails is that due to their ease and simplicity, emails often tend to be associated with speech and casual language rather than formal script, which can lead to miscommunication.

When sending email as part of a professional communication, keep in mind these two points:

  1. An email message is a written text; therefore, it is bound by the conventions of writing. The audience and purpose should determine the relative formality of style and the amount of detail. Ease of transmission and deletion does not justify sloppy composition, wrongly spelt words and ungrammatical sentences. A very common complaint with business emails are that writers seem abrupt and disrespectful and seem written in haste.
  2. Email does not replace hard copy. Printed and signed documents are still considered more binding and formal than soft copy. Therefore, it is always better that even when you email a report for fast transmission, make sure to send a hard copy to formalize the communication. Firstly, it is still easier to lose documents in cyberspace. Secondly, there can be technical glitches’ with electronic communication, whereas print can fall back on the universality and reliability of paper.

The closest hard document to an email message is the memo. Email headers, for instance parallel memo headers, comprising From, To, Subject and Date. Therefore, construct an email message like a memo. This means you should:

  • Begin with an opening address: This could be ‘Dear’ … … for more formal correspondence or ‘Hello … ‘ for less formal. You can omit an opening address if the message is one in a series of reply exchanges on a topic.
  • Place your main message as close to beginning as possible: Give as much information possible in the first paragraph. All details must be given in following paragraphs.
  • Write in full words and paragraphs.
  • Never use uppercase to emphasize anything, its better to italicize the word.
  • End the mail by clear stating the expected response by the person after reading the email.
  • Sign your message with your name and affiliation and contact number.

Other points to be kept in mind while writing an official mail are keep short paragraphs while writing emails. Do not use headings, tables or formatted text in the body of the email. If there is large data then include those in attachments and not in the body of the email.

Use of email is appropriate in cases where even their deletion will not cause any problems. They can be used instead of letters in case of external communication and memos in case of internal communication. It is always better to get a hard copy for binding contracts or information that needs to be recorded.

Digital media

Internet provides high visibility at very low cost, making it the most effective and fastest means of global communication. In the age of internet communication, a basic knowledge of the workings of the computer and internet is very necessary for all business environments.

The internet is a storehouse of information and a powerful medium of information distribution. In the present world of information technology knowledge of how the computer works is very important.

The computer is divided into three parts, the hardware, the operating system and software.

The hardware is the actual electronic part of the computer which includes memory, hard drive capacity, different drives or storage space (e.g. CD-ROM, DVD, etc.) and screen.

The powerful the hardware the higher level of work the computer can perform for e.g. for multimedia applications, one needs a computer with large hard drive and minimum megabytes (MB) of memory.

The operating system (OS), or platform, determines general functionality (how the computer works) and interface ( what the design of the screen looks like) It also determines the kind of software that can be installed and run in the computer.

To connect to the Internet, one needs a browser and an ISP (Internet Service Provider). The browser is the software that allows the computer to access data on the World Wide Web; for example, Internet Explorer, Firefox , Google chrome are very popular browsers. The Internet is actually a huge centreless network of computers connected through individual servers – the part of a company’s computer network that connects directly to the Internet. For an individual user, one needs a provider that has a server in order to connect (usually at a set fee). Companies and institutions have their own servers. The web address or URL, Uniform Resource Locator is actually a link to a server. If one wants to publish any material on the Internet, such as a website, one needs a server to host your site.

Submitting Articles for Online Publication

Writing for online magazines is somewhat similar to print journalism, particularly the inverted pyramid format. Also, as in print publishing, it is essential that you should be an avid reader of your magazine before becoming one of its writers. Going through recent articles of the magazine can provide you invaluable tips regarding the expectations of the editors and readers. Another way to analyze the readers of a magazine is through its advertisers. Many online magazines contain ads at the top or the sides of their page. The types of ads that are displayed there throw light on the demographics and psychographics of the target audience.

Browsing various sites will eventually make you familiar with the electronic magazines that might be a good choice for your article. In many sites, there is a link ‘About Us’, which gives information about the editorial angle, audience, and article submission requirements. In order to be on safer grounds, it is always beneficial to email the editor to present your idea and to determine the fee (if applicable), deadlines, and other relevant issues.

With regard to style, online articles are written in a more casual style than print publications. Online articles tend to be a mix of different genres and styles and allow more experimentation in word choice compared to print publications. Also, they should contain shorter sentences and paragraphs because of the restrictions of the screen-based interface. To sum it up, electronic articles have an economy of style in addition to attention-grabbing punches, which is not often expected for print publications.

Organisation Of Content In Features

Usually, most of the business and technology magazine articles are organised according to the following methods.

(1)  Descriptive method “ This method focuses on the product analysis or the development concerning its constituent parts. While following this method, it is essential to describe the product qualities and benefits, as well as explain the possible applications and examples of use.

(2)  Comparative method “ This method describes and evaluates the product relative to competitors in the market. While following this method, it is essential to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of products for different users, as well as evaluate their position in the market.

(3)  Progressive/historical method “ This method focuses on the qualities and functions of a product concerning its development from a previous form. While following this method, it is necessary to tell a story, comparing the current market situation of the product with parallel cases in the past and pointing out analogies. Besides, focus on innovations and on the specific attributes and benefits, which make the product a novelty.

Thus, depending on the article length, select any one method or mix the three. Thoroughly judge the organisation of information, which would best allow you to present your object in the most appealing and effective way. Moreover, remember that the order in which the information is presented in a text is a strategic device, which provides the writer with the means to manipulate information so as to produce the most desired effect. For instance, if you are attempting to motivate readers to tryout a course of action, it would be counterproductive to begin with the cost or the disadvantages. Basically, this would be beginning with a weakness that could well defeat your intention. Instead, include the cost or disadvantages at a strategic position, after you have highlighted the advantages and qualities.

EVALUATING SOURCES

In reality, no foolproof method or technique exists to establish the credibility of a text. However, certain factors may be considered, when deciding whether an information source is likely to be accurate and reliable:

  • Is the writer real? Does he have the right qualifications needed to write that particular type of article?
  • What organization does the writer belong to? Is the organization reputed and trustworthy?
  • What is the year of publication? Is the article recently published or is too old-dated for your purpose?
  • What is the edition, in case of books or periodicals?
  • Has the information been peer-reviewed? What are the reviews of others, if any?
  • How prestigious or credible is the information source (for example, publications)?
  • Has the writer cited references for the information in the text? Are these references correct?
  • Has the writer referred from a range of information sources, or from a small number of sources? Are the information sources themselves reliable?
  • What organization funded the research?
  • Who are the intended audience? Is the material too elementary or too advanced?
  • Did the writer conduct primary research? If so, has the writer stated the kind of research conducted, methods, and the sample size? The results of primary research depend strictly on the methods used.

Secondary Research

Commonly known as desk research also, secondary research is the most common research method in use today. It is based on the findings of other peoples research and involves processing that collected data. Researchers may consult previous studies and findings such as reports, press articles and previous market research projects, which are relevant to their own topic so as to arrive at a conclusion. This information can be gathered from books, reports or the Internet.

Secondary data sources may be either qualitative (descriptive) or quantitative (numerical).  Qualitative data sources include internet, magazines, newspapers, books, journal articles, diaries, interview transcripts, encyclopedias, dictionaries, reviews, etc., and quantitative sources include surveys and statistics, which are available in the public records office or the national archives. Other types of secondary sources are reference materials, books, CDs, videotapes, and television shows. Most research papers are based on secondary sources as they build up on these previous research or studies.

 

SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA

Official Statistics: These are collected by governments and their various agencies, bureaus, and departments. These statistics can be useful to researchers because they are easily obtainable and comprehensive source of information covers long time periods.

Technical Reports: These are accounts of work done on research projects. They provide research results to colleagues, research institutions, governments, and other interested researchers.

Scholarly Journals: These contain reports of original research or experiments written by experts in specific fields.

Literature Review Articles: These assemble and review the original research. Written by field experts, review articles discuss and list all the relevant publications from which the information is derived.

Reference Books: Reference books provide specific facts or a summary of a topic. Handbooks, manuals, encyclopedias, and dictionaries are included in this category.

The main advantage of secondary research compared to primary research is its relatively low expense and easy availability. Problems with using secondary data include the possibility of bias (biographies), poor validity (trying to make the data to fit to our research when it was collected for a different purpose), incomplete information (some sites offer free portions of a research and then charge expensive fees for the full reports), outdated information (an out-of-date market survey may be irrelevant to the current market scenario), and low quality (statistics, which might not have been verified). These can all return inaccurate results.

PRIMARY RESEARCH

Primary research is that kind of research that needs us to go out and collect data. This comprises surveys, interviews, observations, and ethnographic research. Primary research is an excellent skill to acquire as it helps in a variety of settings including business, personal, and academic. To have knowledge about conducting primary research is beneficial as it can greatly supplement the secondary sources research, such as journals, magazines, or books. A good researcher knows exactly how to use and integrate both primary and secondary sources in her writing.

What is Primary Research?

Basically, primary research can be understood as the research conducted by marketers to collect original data for their own requirements. This process involves the marketer, or someone working for the marketer, designing and carrying out a research plan. Notably, primary research is usually undertaken after the researcher gains some insight into the concerned issue by collecting secondary data.

Primary research, though not used as frequently as secondary research, represents an essential part of general marketing research. Many organizations, mostly large consumer products firms, preferably spend more on primary research rather than on secondary research. Marketing researchers use various types of instruments, ranging from basic methods that record participant responses to highly advanced electronic measurement in which research participants are connected to sophisticated equipments.

The primary research market includes marketers who conduct their own research, and a large group of companies that provide their services to marketers. These companies include:

  • Full-service market research firms, which develop and carryout the full research plan for their clients.
  • Partial-service market research firms that offer expertise addressing a specific part of the research plan, like developing methods to collect data, undertaking data analysis, or locating research participants.
  • Research tools suppliers firms, which provide tools for researchers, including data collection tool, data analysis software and report presentation products.

Advantages of Primary Research

  • Primary research is designed to collect information needed by the marketer, and report it in ways that benefit the marketer. The marketing organization, by conducting their own research, identify issues specific to their own situation. For example, the information collected with secondary research may not meet the marketer’s needs, but with primary research, no such problem exists since the marketer controls the research design.
  • Primary research not only enables the marketer to focus on specific issues, but also enables the marketer to exercise a higher level of control over the collection of information. Subsequently, the marketer decides on issues, such as size of project, location of research, and time limit for completing the project.
  • Primary data collections focus on issues specific to the researcher. Due to this fact the research funds are spent efficiently.
  • Information collected by the marketer with primary research is generally not shared and is thus kept hidden from competitors. This potentially offers an advantage to the company that undertook the primary research.

Disadvantages of Primary Research

  • In comparison to secondary research, primary data seem to be quite expensive since there is a great deal of involvement of marketer and the expense in preparing and conducting research can be high.
  • Primary data collection needs the development and implementation of a research plan. From deciding to undertake a research project to having results, all these often take much longer than obtaining a secondary data.
  • Primary research is not always feasible, as some research projects are unavailable to the marketer even though they potentially offer information, which could be quite valuable. For example, it would not be convenient for a company to interview every customer visiting their store on a certain day, as doing so would need hiring a large number of researchers, resulting in an unrealistic expense.