After having chosen your topic to write on, you need to gather information about the topic so as to broaden the scope of your writing and to improve its quality. This process is known as research, which plays a key role in writing, whether it is professional, academic, fiction or non-fiction writing. Research in writing includes reading more around the topic, taking notes, assessing its relevance for your purpose, and finally, integrating it within your text. The role of research in writing is best explained by Mark Twain: “First get your facts; then you can distort them at your leisure.”
Moreover, research can be divided into primary and secondary research, depending on the sources used to gather information. Primary research includes direct observations, preparing questionnaires and interviewing, undertaking fieldworks, and conducting experiments to gather analytical and descriptive information. Whereas, secondary research includes printed and electronically transmitted reading materials to search for historical backgrounds, different points of view on an issue, and theoretical perspectives on the topic.
Proper research before writing not only authenticates your writing but also helps to make your writing unique and interesting to read.
‘Blind’ writing is a solution for compulsive editors. If you feel critical about every word you produce and constantly delete and rewrite the same sentence, it may be better not to see what you write. Try typing with a dark screen to help you achieve momentum and mass before crafting your output.
When writing, you should use a formal, academic style. Academic writing does not have to be elaborate or complicated. A well-structured, straightforward paper is more easily understood and your ideas better appreciated than one filled with complicated sentences and words.
Strong academic writing must
- Be well-organized, with ideas presented in a logical order;
- Present objective analysis that is critical without being too negative or positive;
- Use clear language that is simple without being basic;
- Avoid emotional language.
Every field has its style of writing. The best way to become familiar with the style used in your field is to read and note how effective authors write.
Pass= (1) go across: We passed the place where the accident had occurred.(2) move past: He passed his teacher in the hall.(3) to come to an end: The water crisis passed.(4) be approved: The bill passed the house.(5) transmit information: Please pass the information to all of your friends.
You spend your holidays/a period of time somewhere (Not pass): We spent a lazy afternoon down by the river.
When pass is used in connection with time, it is usually intransitive: Two weeks passed and there was still no reply.
In sentences about the passage of time, the subject of pass is always a time phrase: Another five minutes passed and the taxi still didn’t appear. This pattern is used mainly in narrative styles.
Pass up = when you give a piece of written work to a teacher, lecturer, etc., you hand it in: All assignment have to be handed in by Monday 3rd October.
Pardon = (formal) forgive; the act of excusing a mistake: I’m sure they will pardon the occasional mistake.
Excuse = give someone permission to stay away from school, work etc., or leave a classroom, meeting etc.: Can I be excused from swimming today please?
I beg your pardon is used (1) to apologize to a stranger because you have bumped into them by accident, sat in their seat by mistake, etc.: I beg your pardon. I didn’t know the table was reserved. (2) to politely ask someone to repeat what they have said: Does this bus go to Marble Arch?I beg your pardon? (3) when someone has said something that makes you feel surprised, shocked, angry etc.: Who’s that woman with long hair?I beg your pardon! That happens to be my wife.
In formal situations, you can use excuse/forgive me instead of I’m sorry: Please excuse me for taking so long to answer your letter.
Painful = (1) causing physical or psychological pain: The finger I trapped in the door is still very painful. The child wriggled free and gave me a painful kick on the ankle.His mischievous behavior brought back lot of painful memories.(2) causing misery, pain or distress: The painful process of treatment is going on. (3) exceptionally bad or displeasing: This movie was painful to watch.
Overdue= (1) (of payment) past due; being unpaid by the assigned date or at the scheduled time: The electric bill was two months overdue.An overdue installment.
Be/become overdue is used of payments, library books, video films that you have rented etc.: Even if the books are only one day overdue, you still have to pay a fine.
Expire is used of a license, contract, membership card, etc.: I wanted to pay by visa, but my card has expired.I suddenly realized that my driving license had expired.
Outdoor (WITHOUT s) is an adjective. Outdoor = located, suited for, or taking place in the open air: He enjoys the outdoor life.There are many outdoor activities in and around Coimbra.
Outdoors (WITH s) is an adverb. Outdoors = outside a building: He likes to work outdoors.
Outside = when you mean away from, use (get/go) out of (NOT outside): It does you good to get out of the city now and again.Without a passport, he would never have been able to get out of the country.
In British English, outside is not used with of: You aren’t allowed to park outside the bank.
In American English, both outside and outside of are used.
Originate = (1) come into existence; take on form or shape: The practice of Sati originated during ancient Ages. (2) to give rise to; initiate: The policy was originated by the previous administration.(3) to create something new: Darwin originated the theory of evolution.
Originate is used in connection with things, ideas, customs etc. (NOT people): No one really knows how the solar system originated.
If you are born in and/or grow up in a particular place, town, country etc., you come from that place: Where does Agneta come from- Sweden or Norway?
Words that enter a language from other languages come from (or are derived from) those languages: The name terrier comes from the Latin word terra meaning the earth.
Oral = (1) using speech rather than writing: Always go for a written agreement in business than relying on an oral agreement.In the oral examination, she was asked to recite the name of all presidents. (2) of or relating to mouth: He has undergone an oral surgery.She practices good oral hygiene by brushing her teeth at least twice a day.
Both the words Spoken and Oral can be used to refer to language skills and the communication of information. However, oral is slightly more technical than spoken. The use of oral to mean spoken is restricted to certain technical phrases used in education: Oral skills, An oral examination.