English Common errors: Aid – English editing.

Aid is mainly used as a noun: ‘Many countries survive on foreign aid from richer neighbors.’ ‘It is government policy to provide aid to the homeless or the unemployed.’

As a verb, aid is used in formal styles and usually means ‘help something recover, develop, grow, etc’: ‘The country’s economic recovery has been aided by the recent peace agreement.’

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English Common Errors: After – English editing.

After is used instead of afterwards only informal styles, usually in phrases such as ‘soon after’, ‘not long after’ or ‘just after’. Careful users generally prefer afterwards, especially at the beginning of a sentence:  ‘shortly afterwards it was announced that the bank had collapsed’. In American English after is often used instead of afterwards.

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English Common Errors : afraid – English editing.

Be afraid to do sth = be unwilling to do something because you are frightened about what may happen: ‘She was afraid to eat it in case was poisonous’. Don’t be afraid to ask for help’.

Be afraid to doing sth = be worried or anxious about something which might happen: ‘Most criminals are afraid of being caught’. He says that he is afraid of losing his job’.

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Open vs. close –class words – English editing.

Open class words, commonly referred as content words, are those belonging to the major part of speech like noun, verbs, adjective and adverbs. These words include brother, run, tall, quickly etc.
In contrast, closed class words are those belonging to grammatical, or function, classes like articles, demonstrative, quantifiers, conjunctions and prepositions. It tends to include a small number of fixed elements. Function words in English include conjunction like (and, or), articles (a, the), demonstrators (this, that), quantifiers (most, few) or prepositions (to, after) etc.
The difference between open class words and close class words lies in use of telegraphic language. Generally, in telegraphic language, open class words are retained but close class words omitted.
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Sentence Structures – English editing.

The old structures are revised in the passage. But the new sentence structures are not explained and made easy to follow. These are an addition to his sentence structures and along with new words already added to his vocabulary improve his grammar and usage in English.
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