Trump releases his 100 days plan- What for Science?

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Electing Donald Trump as the 45th American President will bring about scads of policy reforms, even faster than the people realize. Starting from freezing the employee recruitments to the scrapping of Obamacare initiatives are all on the list! In addition, the breakneck statements and views of Donald Trump on various scientific facts have also sparked strong reactions among academics. However, the term “Science” has turned out to be a jargon for the Republicans and has found no special mention in the 100 days plan. However, we will have a bird’s eye view on the Trump’s blueprint that he would gift the Americans and the world community this New Year, and figure out if the science facts have been addressed to.

Trump – Throwing on off Policy fetters
Trump’s hard-line positions on immigration — including his commitment towards barring Muslims or terror-prone nationals from entering the US, a plan for wall building across the Mexico borders, imbibing visa restrictions, prioritizing American workers, and the termination of job programs for foreign youths, have surely perturbed the research advocates. Such decisions could sidetrack many talented international students or researchers from studying or working at US institutions. The future of foreign research scholars in the USA could be jeopardized due to such visa restrictions.

Science Facts vs. Trump’s Contradiction- Will it affect R&D funding?
The US has been a major investor of federal dollars in the field of R&D. “The entire business of the US academic biomedical research enterprise is based on federal dollars. Without that, it would collapse,” says Ethan Weiss, an associate professor, University of California. Trump’s shockingly ignorant views on vaccination for children with autism, and calling climate change a hoax and data to be unrealistic, pulling out US (the second most carbon generator) from the Paris climate change submit), curtailing the funds to UN for supporting climate change initiatives, and calling NASA as a logistics agency, have surely put him under the scanner of the intellectuals.
As per the statement released in September, by Donald Trump, he says that “there are increasing demands to curtail spending and to balance the federal budget; we must make the commitment to invest in science, engineering, healthcare and other areas that will make the lives of Americans better, safer and more prosperous.” In an interview by sciencedebate.org, Trump added that “scientific advances do require long-term investment.” In spite of such speculations, the fate of R&D industry is too early to predict. However, before the commencement of 2017, the present US Congress Govt. could approve spending bills before Christmas. These bills will raise the National Institute of Health funding as well as the NSF budget. During the first year of Trump’s presidency, the public funding will be secured.

Uncertain change in the climate
Trump’s election could factor into climate negotiations and be a setback for the upcoming climate change meets. When the world is thinking of implementing Paris agreement, the exit of the US from the Paris summit can be an unfortunate development and the pledge of 800 million USD as the annual contribution to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change may cease. However, legally Trump would not be able to sign off the Summit within his four years tenure.

Donald trump on Healthcare reforms
The Affordable Care Act, an initiative by Obama, which is in its current incarnation, won’t survive if Trump makes good on his campaign promises. By this logic, the funds linked to birth control programs would fade away, though not immediately. Trump may defund Obamacare and associated programs like state grant for medical care. A Trumpian shift to insurance premium deductions and insurance plans sales and the opening of tax-free Health Savings Accounts may not remedy the ultimate problem of high-cost health care services in the US.

Tech Boost and Trump
The Silicon Valley may be benefitted by the manufacturing revival initiative by Trump’s govt. “There are several things that a Trump administration could do that would be beneficial to tech,” says Rob Atkinson, president of the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. The export industry will flourish over the import, which will be part and parcel of the shifting away from the traditional start-up model and the adjusted tax and trade policy.

We know very little
The research policies and development across a wide spectrum in the US political scenario are still up in the air and have kept the scientific community optimistic (though cautiously). The outcomes of Trump’s immigration policies are also not clear. This is considered as the central pillar of his campaign, which might or might not affect research. Leighton Ku, a professor at George Washington University, said that “it’s likely that the kinds of highly-skilled scientists who immigrate to the US for school or work would still be welcome. But will they want to come?” This is a billion dollar question that still remains unanswered.

Improving Author Orientation through Service Charter

Improving Author Orientation through Service Charter
What is a service charter?

Service charter is a commitment that aims to improve the service quality of the journal based on customer’s expectation. It is a document that highlights the information related to the services provided to the customer, the quality or the level of service expected by the customer, and the suggestions made the customer to help improve the service standard.

What are the associated benefits?

* A service charter can provide a low-cost model by providing online support in preference to printed journals.
* It provides a clear timeline for publication of the article. The reasons for the delay of publication after acceptance will be specified.
* The commitment to greater transparency can improve the researcher’s experience vis-a-vis the academic journal.
* It specifies whether the journal is peer-reviewed or not, along with the years of experience of the peer reviewers as well as editors. When this information is lucidly presented by the academic journal or the publisher, the whole process becomes more transparent.
* In case a manuscript is rejected, a detailed report will be sent to the author or the researcher so that he/she can work on the loopholes and enhance the quality of the manuscript for re-submission.
* Due to the accountability factor, the journal is committed to promptly addressing the customer’s feedback.

In spite of these advantages, the introduction of a service charter by academic journals is not being implemented widely.
The debate on reforms in the publication process needs to start with the top-ranked journals. There is need for greater transparency on how researchers follow various publication steps, starting from selection of their research topic to preparing the manuscript for submission, besides responding to reviewers’ queries.

Choosing a journal: Open access or traditional publication?

journal selection : Open access or traditional publication

What is open access publishing?

Open access (OA) publishing provides researchers and readers free access to research articles online. In case of OA journals, an article processing fee is levied on the authors after acceptance of the paper. This charge is payable by the researcher, author or the institution the author is affiliated to. However, certain OA journals do not charge any fee and support their operations through sponsorship or subscriptions of the journals.

What is traditional publishing?

Traditional publishing refers to a type of contract between the author and the publisher. In this type of publishing, the author receives a portion of the revenue generated from sales of the journals. This is also known as the “royalty payment model.”

Which route to adopt?

Various factors play a determining role for authors adopting either the open access or the traditional route for publication.

Many researchers consider the open access model as economically unsustainable because it imposes an additional financial burden on them as well as on the institute they are affiliated to. But again, it comes with a basket-full of advantages, such as a much quicker publication process compared to the traditional mode and enhanced visibility of the research to a broader audience. On the other hand, traditional publications have incorporated many reforms in their business models. They ensure manuscript quality and a brand value.

Many publishing houses place the onus on the author. They give authors the choice of either disseminating the research to a wide research community through an OA publication, or opting for the traditional mode of publication.

With the advent of the Internet, we are habituated to rapid changes in business models of the publication industry. However, the journal publication business has been relatively more resistant to change. That is a function of the prevailing academic culture, where the importance of a publication is recognized through the brand value of journals and their ability to promote the publication and win research grants.

Preparing your figures for research papers

How to prepare your figures for research papers

Often a research paper is embedded with loads of data and complex results and it might not be viable to include all them in the space-constrained paper. Hence, this calls for effective presentation of the information in the form of figures or diagrams. In fact, figures are the most powerful tools that leave a strong visual impact for both reviewers and readers.

Here are few tips on how you can improve the presentation of figures in your research paper.

  • Ensure that the components of the figures are clearly visible including the lines and text.
  • Always use a standard font style and size for the figure text.
  • Every figure needs to have a legend. The legend should support your figure entirely. The reader should be able to understand your figure, paired with its legend, without going to the results or method sections.
  • All abbreviations in the figure legends need to be consolidated and spelt out.
  • All parts of the figure need to be labelled. The symbols, lines, colors, abbreviations, error bars, scale bars, and other components need to be defined and described properly.
  • If you are using photographs of your human subjects, don’t forget to obtain an informed signed consent for the same.
  • Do not be afraid to use lengthy figure and table captions—better that than confusing or incomplete ones.
  • Do not forget to cite the figure that has been taken from another source and supports your present study. Use the same citation style throughout the paper.
  • All journals have their specific requirements for formatting figures, such as file format, font size, font style, image resolution, style of numbering, etc. Adhere to these guidelines before submission.
  • Cite figures in the main text at the appropriate place where the text is supported by a particular figure.

The figures in your research paper communicate a parallel story to the reader. In fact, the reader can derive a fairly good idea of your paper by just scanning the figures in the paper. Remember that figures are not just tools to beautify your text; they are the heart of your research and an intrinsic part of your research paper. This highlights the importance of organizing the figures well so that they are able to perform as an excellent prop for your text.

Research problem: A statement of intent

Research problem: A statement of intent
How do I devise my research problem?

A research problem is a statement based on the area of research, which is the first step in a research process. Devising an appropriate research problem depends on the in-depth knowledge, skills, and expertise of a researcher in their particular subject field. Therefore, a researcher needs to devote considerable time to select a suitable research problem.

Steps to formulate a research problem

There are two essential steps to follow while selection:

  • Identification of a research problem
  • Selection of a broad research topic and narrowing it down to a precise statement.

Sources to derive a research problem

Several factors, both extraneous and intrinsic to the research per se, help the researcher in identifying a research problem. They include the following:

  • Field conditions: The rich experiences in the field provide relevant ideas for developing an apt research problem.
  • Personal experience: This might help generate new ideas for formulating the research problem.
  • Previous related researches and theories, and critical review of the available literature: Relevant questions might crop up in our mind when we evaluate the articles, reports and reviews related to the subject area.
  • Expert advice: Subject matter experts are vastly experienced in the field of study. Hence, they may help the researcher find the current problem related to the research, and even devise a research problem.

What should be the nature of the research problem?

There are several guidelines that need to be followed while selecting a research problem. Your research problem needs to be:

  • An original and unique one.
  • An encapsulation of the nature of research.
  • Feasible vis-a-vis time required for its completion.
  • A realistic statement that can be achieved with the available financial resources.
  • Backed by support from your affiliated institution and peers.
  • Formulated in accordance with ethical considerations.
  • Based on recent or current problems persistent in the field of study.

Types of research problems

Research problems can vary according to the field of study and the scope of the research. Basically, there are three types of research problems:

  • Descriptive
  • Relative
  • Casual

A well-framed and appropriate research problem presents the researcher’s view in a clear and lucid manner, and helps readers understand the purpose of the research better.

Why are academic journals expensive?

why academic journals are expensive?Scientific or academic journals serve the distinctive purpose of reviewing, verifying, spreading and providing access to quality and valid research work. However, they are generally too expensive for students to buy.

Some time ago, scientific journals were far more accessible for researchers because they were subscribed by libraries and members didn’t need to buy them. But such easy and inexpensive access to the journals affected the sales of the publishers, who gradually accrued losses. The situation became worse for publishers because many readers could access journals through latched-in libraries and their members. There were cases when the researchers did not have to pay for access to the journals or research articles. For instance, you could benefit if you are associated with any college or university that endows you with free access facilities to the journals, either online or offline. Further, many public libraries located in big cities have purchased the same databases or journals, which you can access with your library card at no cost.

On the other hand, the commercialization and monopolization of disseminating information has surely been increased by a few publishers, resulting in unreasonable financial practices. This practice has seen a leap each year.

In addition, the following factors make academic journals expensive:

  • There are many institutions that are insensitive to price rise. They are basically the primary subscribers. They are ready to procure the journals irrespective of the price because getting access to the materials is more important for them.
  • The Content Management System (CMS) vendors take a chunk of profit for the online content.
  • Many libraries are linked to membership organizations, hence making the journals costlier for many and cheaper for few.
  • A high price is usually preferred to maintain a gap between the academia and the outside world.

The price issue has increased the non-accessibility of journal articles mainly in developing countries, especially in Africa and Asia. This has kept aloof many potentially lifesaving researches, which could have saved millions of lives if they were accessible for free.

However, there’s always a way out. You can simply find the author’s email address (most are happy to oblige) and drop a polite email asking for the PDF, and subsequently avoid the copy charge.

The Future of Open Access Publishing

The Diamond Model of Open Access PublishingOpen access (OA) publishing is a major contemporary theme that shapes many scholarly discussions today. Scholastics or academics, colleges, corporate publishing houses, non-profit publishers and journals, editors, editorial boards, labor unions representing publication employees, funding agencies, and policymakers are all vital actors in this context. They hold numerous, albeit diverse, opinions on open access.

The discussion on OA is a debate about the future of the academic world without the fetters of copyright and licensing laws. The pros and cons of traditional profit-oriented academic publishing need to be discussed, including touchy issues such as monopoly prices and inequalities in access. Many believe that traditional publishing operates within the ambits of a market economy, which does not go well with, and often inhibits, academic pursuits. Simultaneously, the discussion must also center on the contemporary perspectives on OA that are frequently advanced by the mainstream publishing industry, policymakers and labor unions, and then meet these perspectives head on with cogent arguments in favor of OA publishing.

In recent times, a new term has been added to the debate on open access publishing, viz., diamond open access (DOA) publishing. This kind of publishing gives a chance to reclaim academic commons. DOA is a non-profit academic publishing concept that looks at scholastic knowledge as a common good and encourages job security by providing employment to many in the field of open publishing. It recognizes the true essence of the academic domain as a communication system that produces and disseminates academic knowledge as a commons in the OA process.

Promotion of academic commons through DOA needs public funding, favorable policies, research grants, and a system of rewards for academicians who act as editors, reviewers or editorial board members. After all, DOA works in the interest of the academia.

Existing concepts such as “green open access” and “gold open access” have their own limitations. In particular, the green open access model has been criticized because, like conventional publishing, it also operates in a market economy; authors are asked to pay to get their works published. This often leads to “vanity publishing,” where authors pay to publish researches that are often below par. Second, gold open access works in favor of research areas that have financial backing. For instance, while researchers in fields like life sciences have the cash to pay their way through to publication, others are hard put to get their work published through the gold access model.

DOA seeks to overcome these limitations. For a start, unlike gold open access, authors do not need to pay. Second, the final publication is immediately accessible to the public.

DOA publishing has emerged as a policy intervention and reflection on current issues related to OA publishing. It incorporates the following key questions about OA publishing:

  • What role should OA play in the future of academic publishing?
  • What should the future of academic publishing look like?
  • What academic policy reforms are needed in OA publishing?

Admittedly, the debate on OA has thus far lacked vision and the incorporation of innovative social practices. Therefore, there is a need to trigger a new level of debate with questions directed at contemporary policymakers, the writing and editing fraternity, publishing houses, and OA publishing associations and librarians.

Thalidomide: Is it the next-gen cancer drug?

History of the wonder drug “Thalidomide”

In 1957, thalidomide was first marketed under the trade name Contergan in Germany. It is one of the most widely used immunotherapeutic agents to treat immune responses that involve suppression or induction of the immune system. It was prescribed as a sedative in cases of hypertension, sleeplessness or insomnia, and anxiety attacks.

Thalidomide was subsequently administered to pregnant women to reduce the symptoms of morning sickness and nausea. However, the drug was found to cause deformities in the neonates. The deformity, called phocomelia, mainly affected the limbs. It was concluded that thalidomide causes two major health complications: Embryo-Fetal Toxicity and Venous Thromboembolism. Besides, risks increase significantly when the drug is used in combination with other potent chemotherapeutics, such as dexamethasone.

Potential of thalidomide

Despite its dark past, thalidomide has many beneficial attributes that are continuously being explored by researchers and scientists. In fact, thalidomide is now being considered as an effective drug for treating cancer, especially blood cancer known as myeloma.

The drug is found to inhibit the COX-2 gene activity that plays a vital role in the upregulation of cancer. Another wider class protein called NF-κB is an active regulator of anti-apoptotic factors.  This protein is also inhibited by thalidomide. Thalidomide elevates the levels of immune cells, such as T-cells and natural killer cells.

Although researches on thalidomide as a potential cancer therapy drug are yet to reach a conclusion, they have shown the efficacy of the drug in shrinking and attenuating malignant tumors.

There are other drugs available in the market with similar cancer treating properties as thalidomide, but they are not cost-effective and have many side effects. Conversely, thalidomide is cheaper and off-patent, which makes it more conducive for exploring its potency in cancer treatment.

Ethical conflicts in career of medical writers

Medical writers develop content linked with the pharmaceutical, medical, healthcare, and bio-medical sciences. In performing that role, they often face a dilemma about how much they can change or add content so that their writing is not classified as that of a paid ghost writer. This is one of several ethical issues that are an integral part of a medical writer’s career.

With flexibility in terms of working hours, medical writers are able to explore new interdisciplinary fields to develop content. However, crossing the thin line into the realm of ghostwriting is a grave ethical concern in cases where the manuscript is being submitted  to an academic journal for publication.Ethical conflicts

Following are some of the allied issues that have been questioned in a medical writer’s career from an ethical standpoint:

  • Incorrect interpretation of the results by the writer will not only adversely affect the research but also the credibility of the writer.
  • Inadequate research on the specific research topic and related issues might lead to errors of omission or commission, which will finally have a bearing on the quality of the final output.
  • Pharmaceutical companies are constantly evolving existing drugs and introducing new ones. This might position the medical writer on the cusp of uncertainty because such developments necessitate last minute  changes in the manuscript and, possibly, even the conclusions. Conversely, ignoring such new data will jeopardize the research output.
  • Akin to any other field of writing, plagiarism is a bane for medical writers. Often, medical writers are tempted to present someone else’s research work, either wholly or partly. This unethical practice is resorted to as a shortcut to keep abreast of tight deadlines imposed by the author for writing and submitting a research paper.
  • Authorship issues also pose problems for medical writers. They need to follow the journal guidelines and keep at arm’s length the issues related to conflict of interest vis-à-vis the sole proprietor of the manuscript or the research.

Medical writers need to take cognizance of all these potential pitfalls while developing content because such awareness helps them excel in the field of medical writing and leads to a clear understanding of their work objectives.

Why opt for professional editing services?

Importance of professional editing

Professional editing services provide a broad spectrum of services such as basic and advanced copy editing, proofreading, and substantive editing. Substantive editing can be opted for by an author when the paper requires in-depth editing, restructuring, and rephrasing, or if the sentences lack clarity. In such cases of high-level editing, professional editors rephrase and rewrite the convoluted and imprecise sentences and paragraphs. This input considerably enhances the presentation of your manuscript and improves the chances of publication. Advanced copyediting is a less rigorous editing process that often encompasses an expanded copyediting service to fix minor errors in your paper. The service also includes rewriting of certain unclear sentences, but the amount of editing remains modest. Basic copyediting entails correction of general grammatical and syntax errors and improving word choice to enhance the manuscript in terms of presentation and clarity. Proofreading involves checking of overall errors in the manuscript including grammar, punctuation marks, capitalization, and better word choice at certain places to improve the quality of the paper. It constitutes the basic level of editing and polishes a manuscript. To avail such professional editing services, one needs to hire an editor who is well-versed with the aforementioned editing categories. The benefits of hiring a professional editor include the following:

  • Authors who have excellent ideas but find it difficult to express them on paper can gain substantially.
  • Professional editing services save the author’s time.
  • The chances of publication of the manuscript are enhanced manifold.
  • Minor as well as major errors in your manuscript are identified and ironed out.
  • Authors get acquainted with the general writing conventions, grammar rules, and proper usage of punctuation marks, which helps them avoid convoluted and incorrect sentences in their writing.
  • Professionally edited manuscripts have an edge in the peer review process.

Professionally edit for publication

Although professional editors can polish the manuscript by pointing out gaps in the paper, the onus of the research paper lies on the author. Therefore, a professional editor can ably serve as a helping hand in the publication process, but cannot assure publication of the manuscript. Nonetheless, if the author is able to take note of all suggestions by the editor and provide the necessary information, the paper has a much greater chance of success.