B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system. B cells produce antibody molecules which may be either secreted or inserted into the plasma membrane where they serve as a part of B-cell receptors. When a naïve or memory B cell is activated by an antigen, it proliferates and differentiates into an antibody-secreting effector cell, known as a plasmablast or plasma cell.
Springtails are tiny, insect-like animals that can be found almost everywhere on Earth. But what makes springtails truly special is that they are the first animals known to have developed antifreeze proteins. Antifreeze proteins are proteins that help to prevent the formation of ice crystals. This is important for springtails, which live in cold climates […]
A new study has identified a genetic scar left in the genomes of bacteria as they become resistant to antibiotic treatment. This breakthrough will allow scientists to better predict which strains of pneumonia will become highly resistant in the future, giving them time to put control measures in place to help save patients’ lives. Pneumonia […]
Bacteria are often thought of as single-celled organisms, but some species, like Myxococcus xanthus, can work together to form complex colonies. These colonies are able to move collectively and hunt and kill other bacteria. A new study published in Nature Communications has shed light on how Myxococcus xanthus uses two different motility mechanisms to achieve […]