Grammar & Punctuation – Complex Sentences.

There is a limit to the meaning you can express with the conjunction and. If someone says She has not been very successful and she is looking for another career, we can probably work out that looking for another career is a result of not being very successful, but sometimes joining two clauses by and can leave the connection to them very unclear:
The new CEO was appointed and Martin resigned.
This sentence describes two events but it doesn’t show what connection there was between them–always supposing there was any connection at all. We could link the two clauses in ways that did show a connection. For example:
Before the new CEO was appointed Martin resigned.
After the new CEO was appointed Martin resigned.
Although the new CEO was appointed Martin resigned.
The new CEO was appointed so Martin resigned.
and so on.
In compound sentences the clauses joined together are of equal status; we can cut the sentence up into clauses and each of them will become an independent simple sentence. Complex sentences work in a different way. One of the clauses is the main clause and the others are subordinate to it. The subordinate clauses form a single component of the main clause: subject, object, complement, or adverbial. In the first of each of the pairs of sentences that follow the subordinate clause is in bold type. In the second sentence it has been replaced by a word or short phrase.
What you did yesterday was inexcusable.
It was inexcusable.
I cannot forgive what you did yesterday.
I cannot forgive your action.
That is what I admire about Billie.
That is it.
After the new CEO was appointed Martin resigned.
Afterwards Martin resigned.
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