What are the barriers to post-publication peer review?

Post-publication peer review – doing peer review after the publication of the manuscript. When a paper is published. Everyone in the community starts to read it and comment on it either in conferences or Journal Clubs. It is an informal way of doing Peer Review.

F1000, OpenReview, PubMed Commons, TrueReview, Pubpeer are some of the Post-publication Peer Review Platforms.

 Challenges of Post-publication peer review

Lack of Motivation towards Scientific Researches

Editorial control will always be a vital feature of every open peer review method, including PPPR, as we’ve previously reported. Editors are expected to seek peer feedback promptly (and often submit several reminder emails), as well as provide a sense of “prestige” for being asked to review an article, as a clear acknowledgment of your expertise in that area.

Too many choices – Many platforms and alternative methods of use in communicating reviews. It’s likely that various comments appear on different pages but not on others when multiple copies of a paper exist across multiple platforms. It’s also likely that researchers would experience plagiarism. This mode of communication is possibly more suitable when significant theoretical or methodological shortcomings in published studies have been discovered.

Plagiarism

Allows unqualified referees to smear the Researcher’s original work with unfounded accusations, claims, and lies in the name of free speech.

Risk of non-constructive criticism

Some people may use PPPR to be intentionally confrontational in public, talking down to or intimidating their junior peers. As a result, any alternative or complementary system must mitigate or minimize this negative dynamic, ensure that an accountability process is built into and maintained, and ensure that marginalized groups are encouraged to participate.

 Solutions to Post-publication peer review

  • Offers Opportunities for Corrections Authors receive more Feedback from peers by posting papers online. This should lessen the agony of revise and re-submit.
  • Increases engagement of the Scientific Community for more recognition & career development.
  • Ensures openness by making the analysis publicly accessible to those involved in the study.
  • The technology has made it possible for Scientific Research Papers to be accessible always.
  • After reading the Research Paper, review comments can be posted immediately and shared on social media platforms.
  • Strength & Weakness of Scientific Papers is done real-time globally.

 

Conclusion

Peer review was established to ensure that research papers are well-documented and meet the scientific community’s general standards. However, another aim of peer review has always been to stimulate scientific debate. Post-Publication Peer review allows the broader community to discuss the article in greater depth, providing the open forum that peer review is designed to provide. Using this method would undoubtedly result in a conflict of interest. Peer review often prohibits discussion of a mainstream theory against a competing mainstream theory, and theoretical scientists are often denied the opportunity to do so. PPPR aims to make aspects of the daily research process more accessible to the public. It’s about bringing meaning to published research papers by using the evaluations and criticisms that researchers and others conduct.

What To Do When Your Journal Paper Is Rejected?

Rejection is a Certainty in Academic Journals. Acknowledge your feelings as Normal & Legitimate (Anger, Frustration, Disappointment, Worry). Remember it is the end of your paper not for your research or career.

Reasons for Rejection of Journal Paper

  • Plagiarism– Should be less than 10%
  • Ethics in Publication– Should acknowledge proper sources of support, permission to use data, images
  • The theme of the Journal– Should fall within the Aim & Scope of the Journal
  • Paper is under review at another journal – a single revision process must be done
  • Usage of Poor English– Avoid Grammar or spelling errors
  • Journal Formatting Guidelines– Types of Font, Font Size, Margins, Reference & Styles

 

Technical Reasons

  • Poor Validation– Results will be compared with the Standard Results. Carry out Experimental Analysis
  • Wrong Research Methodology
  • Inconclusive Results – Questions are unanswered
  • Lack of Proper Citations

 

What are the various Criteria in Journal Rejection?

There are multiple criteria checked by individual journals.

  • Always approach a journal that publishes your line of work.
  • A good paper published in the wrong journal leads to rejection.
  • Once you have chosen the appropriate journal, check whether you have chosen a strong problem statement in your article. The objective of your research must be identifiable in the Abstract and must be concluded in your work.
  • Your research and its conclusion must be backed up with scientific experiments.
  • Always use the correct statistical method for analysis and mention the methods in detail.
  • Never edit any real-time images which leads to plagiarism.
  • Cross-check images, graphs, tabulations.
  • Your presentation must be simple and easily understandable.
  • Proofread your manuscript to avoid grammatical errors.
  • Always have sufficient data and test samples to establish & support each statement that you claim in the article. If the data size is small, there is always bias in the results which leads to rejection.
  • The conclusion can be generalized only when there is sufficient sampling done.
  • Carefully scrutinize your article and take expert opinions before submitting the research for publishing.
  • Search for a High-Impact Journal.
  • The cover letter must clearly state the details & purpose.
  • If the research quality does not meet the standards of the scientific society, the research will be rejected.
  • The Published Work must apply to all scenarios, if it is for a special purpose, it must be explicitly mentioned in the aim of the work applies to certain scenarios.
  • Insufficient Citation also leads to rejection.
  • The Scientific manuscript must have a catchy aim and a novel technique that attracts viewers.

 

How to Respond after Rejection of Journal Paper?

  • Show the comments to others.
  • Read the comments carefully.
  • Figure out the underlying reasons for Rejection.
  • Re-evaluate and learn.

 

Conclusion

There is nothing to be ashamed of if your paper is rejected. It is a basic process in Journal Publication and not to take it personally. If rejected, do the following things

  • Do something else to distract yourself & most importantly sleep on it one night.
  • Give yourself 3 days’ time and analyze the Rejection Letter more logically.
  • Consider the other Options
  • Proceed with the next Journal Publication

HOW TO WRITE A ‘GOOD’ RESEARCH PAPER

Writing a good research paper and getting it published depends on many factors. It requires proper planning, preparation, and disciplined hard work to get published. However, by the end of the day, the quality and content of the article are what matters. Unless the article is of good quality, no journal will be willing to publish it.

Here are some basic tips on how to write a good article that is accepted by a journal.

Topic: Your topic is the first calling card for your article. You must choose your topic carefully based on the recent developments in your field. If you want to publish your article in a journal with a high impact factor, you must also understand that the editors will require an article that will be popular enough for its readers to maintain the high impact factor of the journal. The relevance of the topic and expressing it smartly via a suitable title is very crucial.

Core work: Your article may be based on your recent research activities, or maybe a pure review of the literature. In either case, it must be of top quality. For original research, the results you report are obviously the high-point of attraction. However, given there are many academicians working on the same topic, there has to be some differentiating factor in your research that will make it stand out from the rest. This depends not only on the research question or hypothesis you set for your experiments but also on what you’re finally present in your article. The same research can generate multiple publications depending on how you choose to present it before your audience.

Review of literature: Every publication requires a review of the literature section. While hard-core review papers are based solely on this factor, even research papers require a review of the literature section to set the context. Your review of the literature has to be up to date with the latest developments and ideas in your field. While writing a review of literature, the message is not about how extensively you have read up on your subject but really about the insights you derive from them. A review of literature is all about perspectives developed from existing literature and it should be conveyed in your article.

Understand your audience: For a successful publication, especially in a journal with a high impact factor, you have to write the article from a reader’s perspective. Figure out what would interest a reader to read your article. A good way to go about it is to understand what interested you as a reader when you were doing your research. Reading good articles not only helps develop knowledge on the subject matter but also teaches us how to write. Revisit your references to see how they were written, the language, the questions they addressed, and what attracted your attention in the first place.

Discipline: Proper formatting, referencing, indexing of content, labeling of charts and figures are the basic hygiene for any good article. It is best you inculcate these habits from the very start to avoid excessive revisions later.

Transparency, Openness and Peer Review

Peer review of a journal article is a critical aspect of publication. The academic circle only acknowledges peer-reviewed journal publication as quality publication, mainly because it gives an assurance of quality and pedigree of the article and thereby the author.

However, there are numerous stemming issues with the peer review mechanism, that in turn has led to various forms of peer review practices. The issues of transparency and openness in peer review procedures in the underlying factor for each of these different forms.

Single-blind Review: This is a process where the author does not get to know the identity of the reviewer, while the reviewer knows who the author is. This is often followed to prevent authors from influencing peers who are reviewing their articles.

Double-Blind Review: This is e process where neither the author nor the reviewer knows each other’s identity. This is followed to prevent any form of nexus or collusion between author and reviewer. This mechanism promises maximum quality control with minimal transparency in the process.

Open Peer Review: This is the exact opposite where both author and reviewer know each other’s identity. This model is one of the most transparent processes and it seeks to address the issue of influence or collusion via an open and transparent process.

Transparent Peer Review: This new form emerged with the emergence of open access journals. In this model, both the article and the peer reviews are posted on the site. Often, an open-access journal uploads the entire article as received from the author on the site and invites reviewers to post their reviews as comments. The entire process is often based on a subscription-based model, where both authors and reviewers have subscribed to the open-access journal, as are the readers who want to access both articles and reviews. This is one of the most innovative and transparent review mechanisms gaining popularity.

Collaborative Review: in this case, either one or more reviewers work together to share a common review, or authors work in collaboration with reviewers on the final draft. This process is also popular for the transparency and openness of publication.

Post-publication Review: This is an extension of the earlier discussed transparent peer review mechanism, where the author’s article is posted as received, and solicited and unsolicited reviews are posted along with it. This is often like a blog where everyone is free to comment on the original post. This model is often restricted to subscription-based access to prevent trolling.

Transferable peer Review: This is a new offering from several publishers in which they allow authors, whose article they may have rejected, to transfer their manuscript along with the peer reviews received to another publication. This allows greater transparency where the new journal and reviewers have an open idea about why it was rejected earlier or the developments done on the previous comments.

Different forms of peer review have differing forms of transparency and openness. There is a set formula as each has its own merits and demerits. What matters is the choice of the journal and what process the journal follows.

Decoding authorship: author, co-author, corresponding author

More often than not, a journal publication has attributions to multiple authors. However, when it comes to formal submissions, citation, and accreditation, the differences in the role played by the multiple collaborators need to be clarified; both amongst the authors themselves and between the authors and the journal to which they submit their article for publication.

Here are some factors to keep in mind when deciding on the authorship of an article publication.

Technically, the author is the one who is the principal architect of the article. Co-authors are those who work in tandem with the author to help them write the content. Co-authors are a kind of author who works with the main author and helps them give shape to the content as per the vision or ideation of the author.

There is often confusion about hierarchy and many suppose that the most senior colleague has to be the author while juniors join as co-authors. This is not necessarily always true. In some cases, when a senior scientist undertakes a major research project, they may ask their junior colleagues to help write an article even while the senior colleague is still the main architect of the entire project. In such cases, the senior colleague is the author while all juniors are co-authors.

However, there may also be situations where research scholars publish articles as part of their Ph.D. programs while their supervisors collaborate as co-authors. In such cases, the main author is still the research scholar who writes on his thesis work and the supervisor helps ensure the quality of work.

In the case of multi-disciplinary studies, two divergent subject experts may simultaneously develop an article with each working on the section specific to their field. They may mutually agree upon author co-authorship for such works.

Being a co-author does not mean one is absolved of all major responsibilities of the content or liabilities in case it is challenged. Most journals understand as a co-author one:

  • Has made significant contributions to the research and drafting of the article.
  • Has been actively engaged in drafting of the submitted manuscript, including revising or critically reviewing the submission.
  • Have agreed to submit to the journal for publication and thereby agrees to abide by all instructions for authors given by the journal.
  • Agrees to be accountable for the contents of the article and thereby shares the responsibility to respond to queries on the content along with the author.

Every journal submission requires the group of authors to identify the Corresponding author for the publication. The corresponding author is responsible for getting all approvals from fellow authors and is the principal point of contact for communicating with the journal. In the case of peer reviews, the journal will only communicate to the corresponding-author and in turn, it is the latter’s responsibility to respond back to the journal the collective opinion of the authors.

Either the author or co-author may nominate themselves as the corresponding author by mutual agreement unless the journal instructions specify otherwise.

How to Promote Your articles and Track them

Getting a journal publication is an achievement; but letting the world know about it is essential for career progression. In the academic world flooded with numerous publications, it is important to promote your work amongst your peers and professional colleagues.

At the same time, it is also important to keep track of the reach and impact of your article. The real merit of a publication is not just the number of reads but also number of citation and recall of the article.

Here are some important tools to promote your article and keep track of it.

  • Normally journals share pdf of published articles which one can share via mail to colleagues and targeted audiences. Do ensure to ask the journals to provide your e-mail id or professional account links in your profile. You can also share digital links of the articlewhich increases chances of clicks and thereby online readership of your article.
  • It is advisable to share printed copies of the article with seniors, peers and especially those whose articles you have used as citation in your own article,along with a short note of introduction or expressing gratitude, as the case may be. Sharing physical copies also raises chances of citation for your own article, and it is a good way of getting acquainted in the peer group.
  • Regularly update your university web page, your personal professional accounts or blogs with your publications. Share short briefs of your research with keywords. This will help your profile be highlighted in general Google searches on the field of you your research by other academicians unknown to you.
  • Use social media platforms for outreach. LinkedIn, Twitter posts or blogs are useful means of promoting one’s article. You can also post links of your article on general online platforms or blogs where you interact with other academicians for online discussions on research Use hashtags or keywords to link your article to relevant topics.
  • It is advisable to get an ORCID registration for yourself. ORCID or Open Research and Contributor ID is a unique ID for every individual which can then be used to track all publications and citation This helps avoid confusions over names, referencing, or mistaken identification. By registering and using an ORCID ID you can easily distinguish yourself and assure that your work is attributed only to yourself.
  • While there exist other platforms and databases which cover a portion of your total output (e.g. Scopus or Web of Science), or only certain types of outputs (e.g. journal articles), you can add all of your publications, works and activities to your ORCID record to create a comprehensive listing in one place, including outputs like datasets, peer review activities and more.

Besides accounts in such platforms, it is also advisable to create a simple Google alert for yourself. This is an easy tool to get records of which all digital platforms are best serving your purpose.

 

What Is a Good Impact factor of a Journal?

Any researcher looking to publish an article gets tangled in the web of journal impact factor and how to select the best journal to target. While it is easy to know the impact factor of a journal, it is altogether a different challenge as to how to interpret this number. Here is an easy guide to journal impact factor and what it means.

What is the impact factor of a journal?

This is the easiest question to answer! The Journal impact factor is a measured frequency-based on citation numbers of articles from a journal in a particular year. First introduced by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information, the simple formula is Impact factor =A/B for any given year (X), where A is the number of citation of articles published in years (X-1 & X-2) by indexed journals during Year X; and B is the total number of citable items like articles and reviews published by that journal in the years (X-1 & X-2). Impact factors are calculated each year by Thomson Scientific for those journals that it indexes (it was 12,298 for 2017) and are published in JournalCitation Reports.

So, what are the caveats?

  • Remember, the impact factor is always dated back 3 years; one cannot know the impact factor of the present year as it will come after 2 years.
  • Impact factor analysis is limited to the 12,298 journals indexed for the JournalCitation Reports covering 27 research disciplines only. Impact factor can be calculated only after completing the minimum of 3 years of publication and therefore it cannot be calculated for a brand new journal
  • The impact factor only denotes citation of journals and not individual articles That is done by other measures like the H-index.

How do we interpret the value of a journal’s impact factor?

This is where things start getting tricky! In most fields, the impact factor of 10 or greater is considered an excellent score while 3 is flagged as good and the average score is less than 1.

However, the impact factor is best read in terms of subject matter in the form of the 27 research disciplines identified in the JournalCitation Reports. Some science streams have higher frequencies of citation while some subjects like streams in humanities may have a lower frequency of citation.

The best means of judging a journal based on the impact factor is noting the comparative score of the journal with others in the same field. So, if a journal A has a score of (say) 5 while the next journal B has a score of 2, that is different from a journal C having a score of 10 while the next journal D has a score of 9. It is the relative score that matters while choosing a journal for publication.

In Conclusion

The impact factor of a journal, although the most credible metric for judging journals, must be properly contextualized. There are other factors too must be considered for articles published in any journal.

Proofreading service provider

Written works, publications, or writings, for the purpose of either academic or business, should ideally be completely free from errors related to format, grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc., before the final piece is produced.

Proof Communications writes, copy edits and proofreads successful tenders, proposals and award entry; we write interesting thought leadership, blogs and case studies; and we proofread annual reports, sustainability reports, RAPs, PDSs and IPO documents for companies worldwide.

For academic purposes, such as a dissertation, this is essential because mistakes in the presentation, most often result in deducted marks. While in businesses, the best, error-free work produced, portrays the concerned business in the best light.

Why you must hire a proofreading service provider?

Producing any written document is stressful work, particularly if there is a deadline. There is a tendency to make mistakes if the work is rushed. It therefore helps to have a professional look through the work to find out and correct the mistakes, if any.

The importance of hiring a proofreader

In employing the services of a proofreading agency, for any written work, its reputation and quality of work, for previous customers, should be taken into account.

Many companies who offer this service give a personalized quote to every customer and they base this on the length of whatever has been written and needs to be checked, because a very high level of concentration is needed to make sure the job is done properly and correctly to the highest standards. The exact price is hence known this way and is a better way of sorting out pricing without being surprised by extra costs.

One possible question for the chosen agency is about the fields they specialize in, or whether their proofreaders are able to cover a variety of subjects. It always helps to have a proofreader who understands the exact area the publication has been written for.

Another important aspect to be mutually sorted out is a time frame. The company should provide a date, on which the proofread copy, along with all necessary amendments would be received back. Most written work in today’s age is done on the computer. On completion, it can be emailed to a proofreading agency instantly so that it can be checked and sent back, as soon as possible.

Another main advantage of doing it this way is that any revisions can be made quickly and easily, with these being sent back with the fully revised copy.

This serves for future reference, so that the mistakes aren’t repeated. Some agencies actually use specialized software to aid their work which helps in getting it done more quickly. This is especially true when it comes to longer documents.

On some occasions, requiring the work to be finished as quickly as possible, the agency can be informed and it can be found out whether or not the finished piece can be produced within the stipulated time.

Thus, using the services of a proofreading agency would be advantageous to an author, before he/she sends their work to the publisher.

You can visit our website to know more about proofreading as well as other editing and writing services.

Improve the Readability of Your Writing

It was less complicated writing in school and colleges for our assignment or project. However, writing for the real world is different. People don’t go to any blog, sales page, or website to just read, but to get the information. That means they need the substance to be as effectively to ingest as could be expected under the circumstances. In the event that they could infuse it Matrix-style into their mind, they might. In any case, since that is not a choice yet, you need to make it as simple as could be expected under the circumstances for them to peruse. In this way, how about we begin by basically following the below given tips.

The present article on “Improve the Readability of Your Writing” provides some basic tips that every writer should follow in order to enhance the readability of their writings.

Tips to Improve the Readability of Your Writing

1. Make short sentences

Ensure to make your sentences short, particularly, the first. Short sentences drastically improve response. There is simply something about a short and simple to read sentence that attracts the readers and urges them to continue reading.

2. Use short paragraphs

In case you are a copywriter or any kind of online writer, you have to split your paragraphs. Preferably, this means keeping them to one to three sentences in maximum. It may seem odd the first time you attempt it. However, once you begin doing it, you will figure out how to love it.

3. Use subheadings

Try to use subheadings. Subheadings make your composition searchable. They make it so that even if the reader declines to read the whole article, they will get a general idea of what the content is about. Envision your subheadings like miniature headings. They ought to attract the reader and provide them a synopsis of what’s in store. They ought to propelling and educational, and keep your reader moving along through your writing. Ensure to use subheadings each 3–5 passages while writing online content.

4. Use bulleted lists

Readers love points and lists. Lists are easy to read, and easy to search. They provide a great deal of data rapidly. They also offer a visual break to your reader, since they seem not quite the same as whatever is left of your content. Essentially, lists and points make your writing more attractive. Try to use them wherever applicable.

5. Analysis it

What’s the most ideal approach to know the accurate decipherability of your writing? Test it. There are many distinctive approaches to do this. However, one of the most efficient ways is the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease score. This test uses a numerical equation to evaluate the average number of syllables per word and the average number of words per sentence for a 100-word piece of content. Results for the Flesch-Kinkaid Reading Ease score are measured on a scale of 1 to 100 (1 being exceptionally hard and 100 being most simple to comprehend). Most copywriters and online writers ought to strive for the 60–70 range. Moreover, if you need a second basic approach to test readability of your content, try the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score out. In view of evaluation levels from 0 to 12 (0 being the least and 12 being the greatest), this test evaluates syllables and sentence length.

By following the above given tips to improve the readability of your writing, you can easily learn to improve the readability and clarity of your writings. However, this needs patience and regular practice.

Writing Headings

Whether or not an audience will read the whole piece of content often relies on the effectiveness of its heading. Thus, for almost every kind of content, the heading is the most vital part. Due to this, every writer tries his best to write a heading that is, not only attractive and appealing, but also impressive. Although there is no particular method for creating an efficient title, there are definite principles that you can pursue to come about with headings that grasp attention. The present article on “Writing Headings” provides some basic tips that should lead you toward that success.

Tips for Writing Headings

Target the Benefits

Normally, readers choose to read such articles, which directly benefit them. In other words, they are concerned with the articles that educate them something new, attempt to solve their difficulties, or provide something that is significant to them. Due to this, effectual headings are often the ones that expose the advantages of the content to the proposed reader. However, the heading does not necessarily need to directly state the benefits of the content. It only needs to offer at least a clue that there is something in the content that might be valuable to the readers. To be brief, the heading should be a tease of the advantages that expect the viewers.

Make It Exceptional

Several copywriters and marketers have a relentless idea of what type of title works for the readers. Due to this, they likely settle for the headings, which are weary and basically unproductive. You must realise that such headings do not attract readers any longer and, in fact, annoys them most of the time. Therefore, stay away from unoriginal headings and instead create your own original ones. The titles do not inevitably need to be revolutionary. However, you must attempt to play around with words and come up with a heading that is unusual and remarkable.

Be Particular

A good heading attracts a specific group of people. It consists of phrases or words that instantly impact the audience for whom the content or copy is written. Specificity is important as readers, particularly those on the Internet, are extremely perceptive. They are eager to know immediately whether or not the content is meant for them. If they get no appropriate information from the heading, they simply overlook the article in general and move on to another website. Therefore, always make it a point to think about your readers while writing headings. Try to include words and phrases that are reasonable and interesting to them.

Don’t Compromise

While writing for an online business, one may be enticed to add keywords to his heading. After all, this will help in increasing the web traffic. However, as much as this helps your SEO, adding keywords to the heading can actually hamper its quality. While in the desire for crafting the most SEO-friendly heading, one may of course compromise the other elements that should be present in the heading. Thus, one must be concerned about the more essential aspects of writing headings before focusing on SEO. However, wherever possible, one can always add in some appropriate keywords while retaining the effectiveness of the heading, following the above mentioned tips.

Writing headings is not as difficult as it may seem in the beginning. By following the above mentioned tips, you will soon understand why writing headings can be actually unproblematic. However, it will just take some gradual practice to perfect it.