A research problem is a statement based on the area of research, which is the first step in a research process. Devising an appropriate research problem depends on the in-depth knowledge, skills, and expertise of a researcher in their particular subject field. Therefore, a researcher needs to devote considerable time to select a suitable research problem.
Steps to formulate a research problem
There are two essential steps to follow while selection:
- Identification of a research problem
- Selection of a broad research topic and narrowing it down to a precise statement.
Sources to derive a research problem
Several factors, both extraneous and intrinsic to the research per se, help the researcher in identifying a research problem. They include the following:
- Field conditions: The rich experiences in the field provide relevant ideas for developing an apt research problem.
- Personal experience: This might help generate new ideas for formulating the research problem.
- Previous related researches and theories, and critical review of the available literature: Relevant questions might crop up in our mind when we evaluate the articles, reports and reviews related to the subject area.
- Expert advice: Subject matter experts are vastly experienced in the field of study. Hence, they may help the researcher find the current problem related to the research, and even devise a research problem.
What should be the nature of the research problem?
There are several guidelines that need to be followed while selecting a research problem. Your research problem needs to be:
- An original and unique one.
- An encapsulation of the nature of research.
- Feasible vis-a-vis time required for its completion.
- A realistic statement that can be achieved with the available financial resources.
- Backed by support from your affiliated institution and peers.
- Formulated in accordance with ethical considerations.
- Based on recent or current problems persistent in the field of study.
Types of research problems
Research problems can vary according to the field of study and the scope of the research. Basically, there are three types of research problems:
A well-framed and appropriate research problem presents the researcher’s view in a clear and lucid manner, and helps readers understand the purpose of the research better.