What Types of Articles Are Published in Academic and Scientific journals?

 

All journals and periodicals publish varied types of content, all generally referred to as articles. However, there are certain technical differences that differentiate the type of publication.

It is important for aspiring authors to understand the different types of publications in order to prepare for one. While choosing a journal for publication, it is also important to understand what type of publication the journal prefers or is presently soliciting. The time period is also a major determinant of what type of publication you should try for.

Types of publication:

Original Research Article: Original research is the most sought after publication; both by authors and also scientific journals and are considered as primary literature. It may be called an Original Article, Research Article, Research, or just Article, depending on the journal. These publications are detailed reporting of original research being presently conducted and conveyed for the first time to the rest of the world. They include hypothesis, background study, methods, results, interpretation of findings, and a discussion of possible implications.

It is also the most difficult to produce as it requires tenacious background research work, and is often a by-product of the actual exercise.

Review article: Academic and scientific journals usually publish two kinds of reviews; literature reviews, often called review articles, and book reviews, which are frequently referred to as reviews. Book reviews are usually solicited by journals from field experts whom they often commission for the review.

Literature reviews are bird’s-eye perspective on the published scholarship in a field of study or narrower area of specialization that provides a critical and constructive analysis of existing published literature in a field, through summary, analysis, and comparison. Scientific journals encourage a specific types of reviews like literature reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses as they are extremely popular with readers. However, one expects a certain level of experience and authority from the author to write such reviews and journals only entertain such entries from select authors.

Brief communications: Brief communications can take the form of short notes, news analysis, letters to editors, Opinions. These publications are marked by their brevity in terms of length, often restricted to 1200-2000 words. Such content has to be also extremely focused on a certain specific aspect with very little scope of theoretical exploration. These types of content are also referred to as ‘Perspectives’and are scholarly reviews or commentaries that present a personal point on widespread notions of ongoing discourse.

Brief communications can be very engaging, especially when directed to an author on a previously published article and if the latter chooses to respond to it. They are also very good sources for references for readers and hence their popularity.

Whatever type of content you choose to write, scientific journals will only publish them if they see value in it for readers. Thus, the quality of the content is critical irrespective of the format and it must enrich the present discourse in the field.

Secondary Research

Commonly known as desk research also, secondary research is the most common research method in use today. It is based on the findings of other peoples research and involves processing that collected data. Researchers may consult previous studies and findings such as reports, press articles and previous market research projects, which are relevant to their own topic so as to arrive at a conclusion. This information can be gathered from books, reports or the Internet.

Secondary data sources may be either qualitative (descriptive) or quantitative (numerical).  Qualitative data sources include internet, magazines, newspapers, books, journal articles, diaries, interview transcripts, encyclopedias, dictionaries, reviews, etc., and quantitative sources include surveys and statistics, which are available in the public records office or the national archives. Other types of secondary sources are reference materials, books, CDs, videotapes, and television shows. Most research papers are based on secondary sources as they build up on these previous research or studies.

 

SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA

Official Statistics: These are collected by governments and their various agencies, bureaus, and departments. These statistics can be useful to researchers because they are easily obtainable and comprehensive source of information covers long time periods.

Technical Reports: These are accounts of work done on research projects. They provide research results to colleagues, research institutions, governments, and other interested researchers.

Scholarly Journals: These contain reports of original research or experiments written by experts in specific fields.

Literature Review Articles: These assemble and review the original research. Written by field experts, review articles discuss and list all the relevant publications from which the information is derived.

Reference Books: Reference books provide specific facts or a summary of a topic. Handbooks, manuals, encyclopedias, and dictionaries are included in this category.

The main advantage of secondary research compared to primary research is its relatively low expense and easy availability. Problems with using secondary data include the possibility of bias (biographies), poor validity (trying to make the data to fit to our research when it was collected for a different purpose), incomplete information (some sites offer free portions of a research and then charge expensive fees for the full reports), outdated information (an out-of-date market survey may be irrelevant to the current market scenario), and low quality (statistics, which might not have been verified). These can all return inaccurate results.