Consonant – English editing.

A consonant is a sound of speech produced when the speaker either stops or severely constricts the airflow in the vocal tract. Consonants are classified into two categories namely, voiceless and voiced. Voiceless consonant are the consonants produced without sound from vocal cord. In voiced consonants the vocal cord vibrates. Consonants are described in terms of (i) Place of articulation (ii) Manner of articulation.
As per place of articulation, consonants can be classified as follows.
• Bilabial – produced from airflow obstruction between two lips
• Labiodental- articulated with lower lip and upper teeth.
• Interdental- produced by placing the tongue against upper incisor
• Alveolar- articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar Ridge.
• Alveo-palatal- articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue rose towards the palate.
• Velar – articulated with the back part of the tongue against the soft palate
• Glottal- articulated with the glottis.
As per manner of articulation, it can be described as
• Stops – the sounds produced when the airflow is completely obstructed during speech. Example: p &b (bilabial stop); t &d (alveolar stop); k &g (velar stop).
• Fricatives – the sounds produced by forcing airflow through a narrow opening in the vocal tract and friction created producing sound. Example: f & v (labiodental); θ & ð ( Interdental); s & z (alveolar); h(glottal); ʃ & ʒ (Alveo-palatal)
• Affricates – this is a single but complex sound, beginning as a stop but releasing secondarily into a fricative. Example: tʃ & dʒ (Alveo-palatal)
• Nasals – these sounds are voiced oral stop caused by complete obstruction in oral cavity, allowing free escape of air through nose. Example: m (bilabial); n (alveolar); ŋ (velar)
• Liquids – they are approximant consonants, where air flows passed the tongue blade without much friction. Example : l (alveolar liquid)
• Glides – these are vowel-like articulations that precede and follow true vowels. It’s smooth and glides into the vowel sound. These are also sometimes referred to as semivowels. Example: w & ʍ (bilabial); ɹ (alveolar); j (alveo-palatal).
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Deictic – English editing.

Deictic is a word specifying identity or temporal location from the perspective of a speaker or listener in the context in which the communication occurs. It is a word (such as this, that, these, those, now, then) that points to the time, place, or situation in which the speaker is speaking. Words are deictic if their semantic meaning is fixed but their denotational meaning varies depending on time and/or place. Words or phrases that require contextual information to convey any meaning are deictic.
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Niggardly – English editing.

Niggardly has no historical connection with nigger, but because it sounds like it, and probably because it is at the same time a derogatory term, meaning ‘ungenerous with money, time, etc.’ or ‘mean’, it is wise to avoid it. Politicians, both in the US and the UK, have been embarrassed by having uttered it in all innocence and then realized it is politically incorrect.
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Nevertheless – English editing.

It is quite common to find nevertheless spelled ‘never the less’. Although this is how it was written many centuries ago, the standard modern spelling is as one word.
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Negroid – English editing.

The term Negroid belongs to a set of terms introduced by 19th-century anthropologists attempting to categorize human races. Such terms are associated with outdated notions of racial types, and so are now potentially offensive and best avoided.
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Negro – English editing.

The word Negro was adopted from Spanish and Portuguese and is first recorded in the mid 16th century. It remained the standard term throughout the 17th-19th centuries and was even used by prominent black American campaigners such as W.E.B. Dubois and Booker T. Washington in the early 20th century. Since the Black Power movement of the 1960s. however when the term black was promoted as an expression of racial pride, Negro (together with related words such as Negress) has dropped out of use and is now likely to seem offensive in both British and US English.
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Native American – English editing.

Native American is now the current accepted term in most contexts, particularly in the US, for a member of any of the indigenous peoples of the United States.
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Native – English editing.

In contexts such as a native of Boston the use of the noun native is quite acceptable. But when used as a noun without qualification, as in this dance is a favourite with the natives, it is more problematic. In modern use it can refer humorously to the local inhabitants of a particular place: New York in the summer was too hot even for the natives, but it is likely to sound offensive if used in reference to any area of the world that has been under colonial rule, in which it was the standard term for indigenous people as opposed to their foreign masters.
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Nama – English editing.

The Nama people are one of the khoikhoi peoples of South Africa and SW Namibia. They have in the past been called Hottentot (actually a somewhat broader term), but that is now obsolete and Nama is the standard accepted term.
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Luxurious, Luxuriant – English editing.

Luxurious and luxuriant are often confused, especially in marketing and promotional material. Luxurious means ‘very comfortable, elegant, and involving great expense’, as in a luxurious hotel, whereas luxuriant means ‘lush’, referring to vegetation, as in acres of luxuriant gardens. To speak of luxuriant comfort or luxuriant four-poster beds, for instance, would be considered incorrect by many people.
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