Publication Cycle: An Overview

Every manuscript submitted to a journal has to progress through the complete publication cycle before it finally gets published. The publication cycle takes genesis with the research idea. The researchers take this idea to a new horizon by conducting experiments, taking into account the previous publications that deal with similar topic. The research draft is then submitted to a journal that is followed by the assessment, reviewing, and further production processing before being published. Let’s discuss the different phases in detail so that we can get a bird’s eye view of the entire publication process.

How publication cycle works?

After the manuscript is submitted, it is first screened by the Editor-in-chief; if rejected, the paper is returned to the author, and if accepted, it goes to the next level. Here, the paper is checked for plagiarism, and conformity to the journal guidelines. Once the manuscript clears this technical round it is then sent for review by a panel of reviewers, who are subject experts. Here, the reviewers either reject the paper for lack of novelty or other reasons that might be study specific or they could either accept the paper or suggest revisions before acceptance. The paper with revisions is sent to the Editor-in-chief for approval, before being sent for a second and final round of review. At times, the paper gets rejected even after coming this far. If the paper is accepted it then goes through the in-house publication process, before finally getting published.

Some journals forego this time taking and tedious process and instead publish all manuscripts after checking it for novelty, relevance to the field of study and compliance to the style guide of the journal. This ensures a shorter review time and faster publication.

How long can a publication cycle run?

The publication cycle time of a journal cannot be assessed unless and until it is specified by the journal. Hence, it is difficult to know which journals have a fast publication cycle. Some journals take months before they give their first decision whereas some let their first decision known in a couple of weeks. Generally, the time gap between submission and first decision varies between 2-3 weeks.

What if the publication cycle is slow-moving?

The slow decision process becomes mentally tasking for researchers, as they spent many anxious months and even years before they actually get to know if their manuscript has been published or not. If their manuscript does not get published they have to again go through the same process of preparing their manuscript according to the guidelines of a new journal, submit it there and again wait for its decision. This cycle sometimes goes on for a few years before the manuscript gets published. In this process sometimes it so happens that the relevance of the paper or the research gets outdated by the time it is accepted for publication, thereby making the efforts of the researcher futile.

It is for these reasons that the researchers earnestly want a fast publication cycle, where they do not have to wait for so long to get a decision on their manuscript. Also, the publication houses are trying their best to formulate ways to make the publication process faster so that good and relevant researches do not become irrelevant. However, the authors need to be aware of the millions of predatory journals luring them for publishing within a very short duration. The authors are the best person to judge their options and choose the one that helps their research best.

The best time to employ an Editing Service

best time to employ English editing service
Each day, hundreds of researches are conducted around the world. These findings and discoveries need to be presented in a way that can be understood by all stakeholders in the relevant field of study. Therefore, the paper needs to be written in a language that clearly communicates the author’s intentions and simultaneously avoids ambiguities that hamper comprehension. This is essential because a well-written paper appeals to a larger audience and hence garners higher citations.
This is where a professional editing service can step in to iron out several crucial roadblocks on the publication route.

Overcome the language barrier

Often, the author belongs to a country where people are generally not proficient in English. This makes the job of the author harder because greater effort is needed to present the research in a lucid manner. If this is lacking, a brilliant discovery could very well be overshadowed by poor language. Consequently, the researcher’s painstaking work will largely go in vain.

Guarantee error-free language

Apart from the problem of communicating with their readers, authors are also susceptible to errors of omission and commission because they get very involved in the research content of the paper and have probably gone through the paper a hundred times from that point of view. Consequently, they tend to overlook spelling, grammatical and syntax errors. Only a fresh look by a professional reviewer can detect those errors. Conversely, if the paper is reviewed by a friend or a colleague, there are chances that they may not give an honest review.
Therefore, it is always advisable to employ the services of a good editing service. The trained eye of a professional editor can detect the errors in a manuscript and rectify them. Often, the editor also gives useful inputs to enhance the quality of the paper and thus minimise the chances of rejection by the target journal.From this vantage point, is it not better to employ the services of a professional editing service from the outset instead of seeking numerous reviews from other quarters?

Ensure compliance with journal guidelines

The primary objective of a research paper is to be published in a journal. Each journal specifies its own style guide, which needs to be strictly followed by the writer. This might be a difficult task for writers because their primary attention is on the research content. On the other hand, a professional editor keeps doing similar jobs day in and day out and is therefore well conversant with the specifications of various journals and better equipped to modify research papers according to journal guidelines. This saves the researchers considerable time and effort, which they can instead devote to enhance the research content. It will also help writers avoid the trap of aligning their current research with their past work, which increases the chances of rejection on the grounds of non-compliance with the stipulated journal guidelines.

Therefore, it is very important for a research paper to be presented in a manner that best justifies the research ideas of the writer, communicates clearly to the reader, and satisfies the guidelines of the target journal.

Use of flawless English brings the main idea of the paper to the fore, making it a paper worth reading for a large number of people interested in that field of study. To ensure such an outcome and enhance the chances of publication, it is critical for writers to hire a good English editor having sound knowledge in journal editing services.

Improve your English writing

develop our writing abilitiesTo develop our writing abilities, we must first ascertain the purpose of the writing and its target audience. We must ensure that it is our inner passion and enthusiasm that has made us explore into the world of writing.

The present blog article provides some basic points that we all can follow to improve our writing abilities and achieve excellence.

Steps to improve English writing

Participate in group discussions

Align yourself with people who share your interest in writing. They might not be experts, but they must be open to acquiring new writing skills. Interact with like-minded people who can engage with you in debates and discussions. Such discussions can help the group pick up new facets of writing or polish existing skills.

Practice makes perfect

Writing is a process that keeps on improving with practice. You need to be patient to see the results because writing demands both concentration and time. It is important to be resolute and not lose heart if success is not achieved within the expected time frame. Conversely, it is important to believe in your caliber and understand that with regular practice and the right attitude, you can reach a certain level of excellence.

Understand the grammar

Grammar rules should be strictly followed to produce a flawless writing piece. Thus, one should imbibe sufficient knowledge about these rules and understand the nuances of the language. These skills can be picked up by referring to some established grammar books and solving exercises. A stranglehold on grammar goes a long way toward developing writing skills.

Learn new words

Apart from grammar, vocabulary is perhaps the most important component of writing because carefully selected words give expression to your thoughts in the best possible manner and amplify the impact of your writing. Improve your vocabulary by learning and using new words that can make your sentences more graceful and expressive. You can do this by reading books by different authors. Reading not only helps improve your vocabulary, but it also acquaints you with new and varied writing styles.

Proofreading service provider

Written works, publications, or writings, for the purpose of either academic or business, should ideally be completely free from errors related to format, grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc., before the final piece is produced.

For academic purposes, such as a dissertation, this is essential because mistakes in the presentation, most often result in deducted marks. While in businesses, the best, error-free work produced, portrays the concerned business in the best light.

Why you must hire a proofreading service provider?

Producing any written document is stressful work, particularly if there is a deadline. There is a tendency to make mistakes if the work is rushed. It therefore helps to have a professional look through the work to find out and correct the mistakes, if any.

The importance of hiring a proofreader

In employing the services of a proofreading agency, for any written work, its reputation and quality of work, for previous customers, should be taken into account.

Many companies who offer this service give a personalized quote to every customer and they base this on the length of whatever has been written and needs to be checked, because a very high level of concentration is needed to make sure the job is done properly and correctly to the highest standards. The exact price is hence known this way and is a better way of sorting out pricing without being surprised by extra costs.

One possible question for the chosen agency is about the fields they specialize in, or whether their proofreaders are able to cover a variety of subjects. It always helps to have a proofreader who understands the exact area the publication has been written for.

Another important aspect to be mutually sorted out is a time frame. The company should provide a date, on which the proofread copy, along with all necessary amendments would be received back. Most written work in today’s age is done on the computer. On completion, it can be emailed to a proofreading agency instantly so that it can be checked and sent back, as soon as possible.

Another main advantage of doing it this way is that any revisions can be made quickly and easily, with these being sent back with the fully revised copy.

This serves for future reference, so that the mistakes aren’t repeated. Some agencies actually use specialized software to aid their work which helps in getting it done more quickly. This is especially true when it comes to longer documents.

On some occasions, requiring the work to be finished as quickly as possible, the agency can be informed and it can be found out whether or not the finished piece can be produced within the stipulated time.

Thus, using the services of a proofreading agency would be advantageous to an author, before he/she sends their work to the publisher.

You can visit our website to know more about proofreading as well as other editing and writing services.

Writing a research manuscript

While editing different research manuscripts, I have often observed the lack of presentation in the content matter; as a result, in spite of having a good amount of results, the manuscript becomes very weak in terms of readability and clarity. Here are few suggestions that might be helpful for the beginner to understand how to write an effective research manuscript. A research manuscript can be of different types: original article, reviews, short communication, rapid communication, letters, etc. Here I will limit my discussion on how to plan for writing a manuscript for an original article.

Before you start writing the manuscript, take a few steps back, gather all your results and ask yourself few questions: Is it a new and original work? Does it have a clear objective or hypothesis? Did you make a significant amount of progress to achieve the goal? Are all your claims supported by appropriate data? Can you explain gist of your work in one or two sentences? If all the answers are YES, go ahead and start writing the research manuscript.

There is a general structure for each type of research manuscript. For writing a manuscript of an original article, the following structure should be followed:

Title

Abstract

Keywords

IMRAD (the main body: Introduction (I), Methods (M), Results And Discussion (RAD))

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Appendices/ Supplementary

This should be the format and the order of final presentation; however, the order of writing would be little different.

First, prepare all your figures and tables. This will help you in assessing the standard of your work; accordingly, select two or three journals. Once you finish writing choose the target journal among them. Following is the order you may start writing:

1. Start with the “Method” or experimental section (if you are theoretician, first work on your Theory) of the manuscript. This section should be written in detail so that any reader, if needed, can reproduce the results by following the method you described. If you have used any previously established method, cite the appropriate reference without going into detail. For chemicals, cell lines, antibody, etc., mention the company or lab from where you bought or procured it. For instrument, it is important to mention the model number along with the company name. Same is for any software, for example, Sigma-Plot, SPSS, etc. (mention the version).

2. Next, start the “Result” section of your manuscript. Briefly writing the protocol could be effective. Present all the main findings;  you may present the secondary data in supplementary section. Refer the figures and tables in order. Use sub-headings while presenting results of same type together. Do not discuss and interpret the results here, if you have a separate “Discussion” section. However, in case of common “Results and Discussion”, you need to interpret. For this, you need to check the “Author guidelines” of your target journal and accordingly, plan your presentation.

3. Once you finish the result section, you will see a story has already built up in front of you. Now, start writing the “Introduction” of the manuscript. “Introduction” should reflect the background of the study, i.e., what made you interested or inspired to undertake this project. Discuss already published studies in the field. Remember, while presenting the previous literature, you should take care of the logical flow of the content. “Introduction” of a manuscript sets the beginning of your article; do not ruin it with irrelevant facts. The last paragraph should present the objective of your work clearly, and care should be taken to maintain the logical flow with rest of the introduction.

4. Once you have the “Introduction”, “Results” and “Methods” sections ready, it is easy to write “Discussion” of a manuscript. Start “Discussion” with the answer of the questions raised in the “Introduction”. The “Discussion” section of a manuscript not only involves interpreting your findings, but also comparing your results with the previously reported studies. This is very important. Often, I see the authors only discuss their result without comparing with the existing reports. If you have obtained improved results, explain the reason. At the same time, if your findings are not in accordance with the published report, try to give explanation. This could be some difference in methods or due to some limitation in your study. Besides explaining the significance your work, you must explain weakness or discrepancies of your work (if any).

4. Once you are done with the “Discussion” of your manuscript, go back to “Introduction” and refine it. Depending on how far you could achieve the goal, you need to refine. Go through the entire manuscript couple of times and find out if something is missing or over stretched. Once you are satisfied, think about “Conclusions”

5. “Conclusions” helps a reader or a reviewer to judge the work presented in the manuscript. Remember, “Conclusions” of a manuscript should not be the rehash of “Results”. In this section, you should briefly present only the key results, followed by how far you achieved the goal. Limitations (if any) should also be told very briefly and end with some future study or application.

6. Again, go back and refine your “Introduction”.

7.  Take utmost care while writing “Abstract” of your manuscript. It should be clear and at the same time interesting. Do not drag it (keep it within 250-300 words as most of the journal recommends). If your target journal wants a structured abstract (Background-Objective-Results- Conclusions), it is easy for you to write; however, you may always write the “abstract” following this structure in mind. Try to present a clear objective with highlighting the key findings and end with a robust “conclusions”. A clear “Abstract” sets the mood of a reader whether your manuscript will be considered for further reading.

8. Keywords are used for indexing and it increases the visibility of your manuscript if published. Therefore, choose keywords (generally five or six maximum) those exactly relate to your study.

9. “Title” is the most crucial part of a manuscript, attracting readers. Title should be crisp and chosen in such way so that it represents the content of a manuscript in a “nut shell”. Take more time to come up with an appropriate title.

Finally, revise, revise, revise…..

Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms

Abbreviations

An abbreviation is a short form of a word or phrase that is used to represent the whole term. For example, etc. for etcetera, Sat for Saturday, Dec for December, Sonar for Sound Navigation and Ranging, UK for United Kingdom, etc. Abbreviations can be of many types; the most common ones are Acronyms and Initialisms.

Acronyms

An acronym is formed from beginning letters, syllables or parts of a word or phrase. It forms a new word and is usually, but not always, in all capital letters. An important point to remember is that acronyms are pronounced as words. It is a subset of abbreviation, i.e., all acronyms are abbreviations, but the reverse is not true.

Examples:

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)abbreviation

Scuba (Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus)

Radar (Radio Detection and Ranging)

OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay)

RAM (Random Access Memory)

LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)

Interpol (International Criminal Police Organization)

 

Initialisms

An initialism is another type of abbreviation that is made up of the initial letters of the name or phrase. It is different from an acronym as the former is pronounced one letter at a time, i.e., each letter is read separately, and not as a word.

Examples:

BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation)

FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation),

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)

HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language)

IBM (International Business Machines)

DVD (Digital video disc)

BTW (By the way)

UN (United Nations)

USA (United States of America)

CD (Compact Disc)

Misplaced, Dangling and Squinting Modifiers

A modifier is a word or phrase that describes or adds details to a sentence. In the below examples, the modifiers are italicized.

  • I went through all the stores yesterday, looking for the perfect gift.
  • While walking on the sand, she removed her slippers.

One should place modifiers carefully so that the reader understands what is being modified. Writers, generally, make three types of modifier mistakes: misplaced, dangling and squinting modifiers.

 

Misplaced modifier: 

A misplaced modifier is a wrongly placed modifier that makes the subject of the modifier unclear. The reader may not be sure of the word the modifier is describing or may think of a different word being described instead of the intended one. Consider the below examples:

INCORRECT: The man walked towards the building carrying a box.

In this sentence, the building is carrying a box, which is illogical.

REVISED: The man carrying a box walked towards the building.

INCORRECT: We returned the packets to the store that was new.

REVISED: We returned the new packets to the store.

INCORRECT: She served biscuits to the children on paper plates.

REVISED: She served biscuits on paper plates to the children.

Dangling modifier:

When a modifier improperly modifies something in a sentence, it is called a dangling modifier. It is often located in the beginning or at the end of a sentence. The error may occur because the modifier has nothing to refer or is placed next to the wrong noun that it does not modify. Consider the following examples:

INCORRECT: To improve his outcomes, the analysis was done again.

Who wanted to improve outcomes? This sentence indicates that the analysis wants to improve its own outcomes.

REVISED: He improved his outcomes by doing the analysis again or

To improve his outcomes, he performed the analysis again.

INCORRECT: After reviewing the research article, it remains unconvincing.

REVISED: After reviewing the research article, I find the article unconvincing.

INCORRECT: When ten years old, my mother tried to teach me cooking.

REVISED: When I was ten years old, my mother tried to teach me cooking.

Squinting modifier:

squinting modifier may describe two situations, i.e., either the word before it or the word after it. In other words, it is an ambiguously placed modifier. Consider the below example:

INCORRECT: I told my daughter after she completed her homework we would play together.

The above sentence is not clear.

Does it mean that I told my daughter after she completed her homework? Does it mean that we would play together after she completed her homework?

REVISED: After she had completed her homework, I told my daughter we would play together. Or, I told my daughter we would play together after she completed her homework.

Improve the Readability of Your Writing

It was less complicated writing in school and colleges for our assignment or project. However, writing for the real world is different. People don’t go to any blog, sales page, or website to just read, but to get the information. That means they need the substance to be as effectively to ingest as could be expected under the circumstances. In the event that they could infuse it Matrix-style into their mind, they might. In any case, since that is not a choice yet, you need to make it as simple as could be expected under the circumstances for them to peruse. In this way, how about we begin by basically following the below given tips.

The present article on “Improve the Readability of Your Writing” provides some basic tips that every writer should follow in order to enhance the readability of their writings.

Tips to Improve the Readability of Your Writing

1. Make short sentences

Ensure to make your sentences short, particularly, the first. Short sentences drastically improve response. There is simply something about a short and simple to read sentence that attracts the readers and urges them to continue reading.

2. Use short paragraphs

In case you are a copywriter or any kind of online writer, you have to split your paragraphs. Preferably, this means keeping them to one to three sentences in maximum. It may seem odd the first time you attempt it. However, once you begin doing it, you will figure out how to love it.

3. Use subheadings

Try to use subheadings. Subheadings make your composition searchable. They make it so that even if the reader declines to read the whole article, they will get a general idea of what the content is about. Envision your subheadings like miniature headings. They ought to attract the reader and provide them a synopsis of what’s in store. They ought to propelling and educational, and keep your reader moving along through your writing. Ensure to use subheadings each 3–5 passages while writing online content.

4. Use bulleted lists

Readers love points and lists. Lists are easy to read, and easy to search. They provide a great deal of data rapidly. They also offer a visual break to your reader, since they seem not quite the same as whatever is left of your content. Essentially, lists and points make your writing more attractive. Try to use them wherever applicable.

5. Analysis it

What’s the most ideal approach to know the accurate decipherability of your writing? Test it. There are many distinctive approaches to do this. However, one of the most efficient ways is the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease score. This test uses a numerical equation to evaluate the average number of syllables per word and the average number of words per sentence for a 100-word piece of content. Results for the Flesch-Kinkaid Reading Ease score are measured on a scale of 1 to 100 (1 being exceptionally hard and 100 being most simple to comprehend). Most copywriters and online writers ought to strive for the 60–70 range. Moreover, if you need a second basic approach to test readability of your content, try the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score out. In view of evaluation levels from 0 to 12 (0 being the least and 12 being the greatest), this test evaluates syllables and sentence length.

By following the above given tips to improve the readability of your writing, you can easily learn to improve the readability and clarity of your writings. However, this needs patience and regular practice.

Writing a Book Review

Writing a book review is an extremely resourceful task that includes an extensive variety of skills. Writing a book review is not confined to certain disciplines as a wide range of subjects have book review tasks where the writer evaluates a book after carefully reading it entirely. While writing a book review, writers should incorporate some details about the chief aspects of the book, like character, plot, theme and setting. In order to write an effective book review, it is essential to have the reviewer’s outlook of how well the author has pursued in using those aspects.

The present article on “Writing a Book Review” provides some basic tips and information that every writer should follow in order to efficiently review a book.

Tips for Writing a Book Review

  • A book review specifically presents sufficient details to help the reader decide whether he/she needs to read the book.
  • In order to write an effective book review, the reviewer must first read the book intensely, which requires a thorough and careful attempt.
  • While writing a book review, the reviewer must have sufficient knowledge about the genre of the book, like whether it is a romance novel or historical, mystery and thriller or science fiction. Nonetheless, reviewers must also be considerate of the elements that involve great literature of this type.
  • While evaluating a book, try to find out the intention of the author. Take into account what the title and subtitle might mean. Collect notes, write down the favorite parts or quotes you think are weak, and then review every section.
  • Always try to do some background research. Gather information about the author. Explore the subject matter. Think about the possible subjects for the book. After conducting a sufficient amount of research work, you can prepare about writing the first draft of your review.
  • Review the book shortly in the first paragraph. Try a passage from the book and support it with a statement that explains why that note is distinctive or not distinctive. Comment on what you think the author’s intent was in writing the book and how well has he/she achieved this target.
  • Depending on how you start the book review, the rest of the part will be influenced by your choices. Nevertheless, the fundamental direction and focus of the piece goes from there.
  • Try to convey each of your views about your opening message with simplifications. Try to state how every of your illustrations make your point.
  • Ensure to provide transitions between paragraphs. Try to make your review mix together with views related to your subject matter.
  • Wind up your review using a paragraph or two that express your topic into ultimate focus for your reader. You might end up to a conclusion about the subject matter, the author’s intention, or about the overall efficiency of the book.
  • After writing a book review, always read them out loud and remove the discomfited phrases. Observe your notes for correctness and precision. Moreover, make sure that you have not updated your review with notes.
  • Try not to write the review unless you have analyzed the book intensely and completely.
  • Try not to make general comments about the book. In fact, you can use explicit quotations or examples.
  • Lastly, if possible, request a friend to appraise the review. As a matter of fact, fresh eyes can often catch mistakes in the review that you might have missed out.

By following the above given tips for writing a book review, one can easily learn to review a book without any major error or mistake. However, in order to be able to write a completely effective book review, thorough knowledge and practice is needed.

Writing Headings

Whether or not an audience will read the whole piece of content often relies on the effectiveness of its heading. Thus, for almost every kind of content, the heading is the most vital part. Due to this, every writer tries his best to write a heading that is, not only attractive and appealing, but also impressive. Although there is no particular method for creating an efficient title, there are definite principles that you can pursue to come about with headings that grasp attention. The present article on “Writing Headings” provides some basic tips that should lead you toward that success.

Tips for Writing Headings

Target the Benefits

Normally, readers choose to read such articles, which directly benefit them. In other words, they are concerned with the articles that educate them something new, attempt to solve their difficulties, or provide something that is significant to them. Due to this, effectual headings are often the ones that expose the advantages of the content to the proposed reader. However, the heading does not necessarily need to directly state the benefits of the content. It only needs to offer at least a clue that there is something in the content that might be valuable to the readers. To be brief, the heading should be a tease of the advantages that expect the viewers.

Make It Exceptional

Several copywriters and marketers have a relentless idea of what type of title works for the readers. Due to this, they likely settle for the headings, which are weary and basically unproductive. You must realise that such headings do not attract readers any longer and, in fact, annoys them most of the time. Therefore, stay away from unoriginal headings and instead create your own original ones. The titles do not inevitably need to be revolutionary. However, you must attempt to play around with words and come up with a heading that is unusual and remarkable.

Be Particular

A good heading attracts a specific group of people. It consists of phrases or words that instantly impact the audience for whom the content or copy is written. Specificity is important as readers, particularly those on the Internet, are extremely perceptive. They are eager to know immediately whether or not the content is meant for them. If they get no appropriate information from the heading, they simply overlook the article in general and move on to another website. Therefore, always make it a point to think about your readers while writing headings. Try to include words and phrases that are reasonable and interesting to them.

Don’t Compromise

While writing for an online business, one may be enticed to add keywords to his heading. After all, this will help in increasing the web traffic. However, as much as this helps your SEO, adding keywords to the heading can actually hamper its quality. While in the desire for crafting the most SEO-friendly heading, one may of course compromise the other elements that should be present in the heading. Thus, one must be concerned about the more essential aspects of writing headings before focusing on SEO. However, wherever possible, one can always add in some appropriate keywords while retaining the effectiveness of the heading, following the above mentioned tips.

Writing headings is not as difficult as it may seem in the beginning. By following the above mentioned tips, you will soon understand why writing headings can be actually unproblematic. However, it will just take some gradual practice to perfect it.