Misplaced, Dangling and Squinting Modifiers

A modifier is a word or phrase that describes or adds details to a sentence. In the below examples, the modifiers are italicized.

  • I went through all the stores yesterday, looking for the perfect gift.
  • While walking on the sand, she removed her slippers.

One should place modifiers carefully so that the reader understands what is being modified. Writers, generally, make three types of modifier mistakes: misplaced, dangling and squinting modifiers.

 

Misplaced modifier: 

A misplaced modifier is a wrongly placed modifier that makes the subject of the modifier unclear. The reader may not be sure of the word the modifier is describing or may think of a different word being described instead of the intended one. Consider the below examples:

INCORRECT: The man walked towards the building carrying a box.

In this sentence, the building is carrying a box, which is illogical.

REVISED: The man carrying a box walked towards the building.

INCORRECT: We returned the packets to the store that was new.

REVISED: We returned the new packets to the store.

INCORRECT: She served biscuits to the children on paper plates.

REVISED: She served biscuits on paper plates to the children.

Dangling modifier:

When a modifier improperly modifies something in a sentence, it is called a dangling modifier. It is often located in the beginning or at the end of a sentence. The error may occur because the modifier has nothing to refer or is placed next to the wrong noun that it does not modify. Consider the following examples:

INCORRECT: To improve his outcomes, the analysis was done again.

Who wanted to improve outcomes? This sentence indicates that the analysis wants to improve its own outcomes.

REVISED: He improved his outcomes by doing the analysis again or

To improve his outcomes, he performed the analysis again.

INCORRECT: After reviewing the research article, it remains unconvincing.

REVISED: After reviewing the research article, I find the article unconvincing.

INCORRECT: When ten years old, my mother tried to teach me cooking.

REVISED: When I was ten years old, my mother tried to teach me cooking.

Squinting modifier:

squinting modifier may describe two situations, i.e., either the word before it or the word after it. In other words, it is an ambiguously placed modifier. Consider the below example:

INCORRECT: I told my daughter after she completed her homework we would play together.

The above sentence is not clear.

Does it mean that I told my daughter after she completed her homework? Does it mean that we would play together after she completed her homework?

REVISED: After she had completed her homework, I told my daughter we would play together. Or, I told my daughter we would play together after she completed her homework.

Improve the Readability of Your Writing

It was less complicated writing in school and colleges for our assignment or project. However, writing for the real world is different. People don’t go to any blog, sales page, or website to just read, but to get the information. That means they need the substance to be as effectively to ingest as could be expected under the circumstances. In the event that they could infuse it Matrix-style into their mind, they might. In any case, since that is not a choice yet, you need to make it as simple as could be expected under the circumstances for them to peruse. In this way, how about we begin by basically following the below given tips.

The present article on “Improve the Readability of Your Writing” provides some basic tips that every writer should follow in order to enhance the readability of their writings.

Tips to Improve the Readability of Your Writing

1. Make short sentences

Ensure to make your sentences short, particularly, the first. Short sentences drastically improve response. There is simply something about a short and simple to read sentence that attracts the readers and urges them to continue reading.

2. Use short paragraphs

In case you are a copywriter or any kind of online writer, you have to split your paragraphs. Preferably, this means keeping them to one to three sentences in maximum. It may seem odd the first time you attempt it. However, once you begin doing it, you will figure out how to love it.

3. Use subheadings

Try to use subheadings. Subheadings make your composition searchable. They make it so that even if the reader declines to read the whole article, they will get a general idea of what the content is about. Envision your subheadings like miniature headings. They ought to attract the reader and provide them a synopsis of what’s in store. They ought to propelling and educational, and keep your reader moving along through your writing. Ensure to use subheadings each 3–5 passages while writing online content.

4. Use bulleted lists

Readers love points and lists. Lists are easy to read, and easy to search. They provide a great deal of data rapidly. They also offer a visual break to your reader, since they seem not quite the same as whatever is left of your content. Essentially, lists and points make your writing more attractive. Try to use them wherever applicable.

5. Analysis it

What’s the most ideal approach to know the accurate decipherability of your writing? Test it. There are many distinctive approaches to do this. However, one of the most efficient ways is the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease score. This test uses a numerical equation to evaluate the average number of syllables per word and the average number of words per sentence for a 100-word piece of content. Results for the Flesch-Kinkaid Reading Ease score are measured on a scale of 1 to 100 (1 being exceptionally hard and 100 being most simple to comprehend). Most copywriters and online writers ought to strive for the 60–70 range. Moreover, if you need a second basic approach to test readability of your content, try the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score out. In view of evaluation levels from 0 to 12 (0 being the least and 12 being the greatest), this test evaluates syllables and sentence length.

By following the above given tips to improve the readability of your writing, you can easily learn to improve the readability and clarity of your writings. However, this needs patience and regular practice.

Writing a Book Review

Writing a book review is an extremely resourceful task that includes an extensive variety of skills. Writing a book review is not confined to certain disciplines as a wide range of subjects have book review tasks where the writer evaluates a book after carefully reading it entirely. While writing a book review, writers should incorporate some details about the chief aspects of the book, like character, plot, theme and setting. In order to write an effective book review, it is essential to have the reviewer’s outlook of how well the author has pursued in using those aspects.

The present article on “Writing a Book Review” provides some basic tips and information that every writer should follow in order to efficiently review a book.

Tips for Writing a Book Review

  • A book review specifically presents sufficient details to help the reader decide whether he/she needs to read the book.
  • In order to write an effective book review, the reviewer must first read the book intensely, which requires a thorough and careful attempt.
  • While writing a book review, the reviewer must have sufficient knowledge about the genre of the book, like whether it is a romance novel or historical, mystery and thriller or science fiction. Nonetheless, reviewers must also be considerate of the elements that involve great literature of this type.
  • While evaluating a book, try to find out the intention of the author. Take into account what the title and subtitle might mean. Collect notes, write down the favorite parts or quotes you think are weak, and then review every section.
  • Always try to do some background research. Gather information about the author. Explore the subject matter. Think about the possible subjects for the book. After conducting a sufficient amount of research work, you can prepare about writing the first draft of your review.
  • Review the book shortly in the first paragraph. Try a passage from the book and support it with a statement that explains why that note is distinctive or not distinctive. Comment on what you think the author’s intent was in writing the book and how well has he/she achieved this target.
  • Depending on how you start the book review, the rest of the part will be influenced by your choices. Nevertheless, the fundamental direction and focus of the piece goes from there.
  • Try to convey each of your views about your opening message with simplifications. Try to state how every of your illustrations make your point.
  • Ensure to provide transitions between paragraphs. Try to make your review mix together with views related to your subject matter.
  • Wind up your review using a paragraph or two that express your topic into ultimate focus for your reader. You might end up to a conclusion about the subject matter, the author’s intention, or about the overall efficiency of the book.
  • After writing a book review, always read them out loud and remove the discomfited phrases. Observe your notes for correctness and precision. Moreover, make sure that you have not updated your review with notes.
  • Try not to write the review unless you have analyzed the book intensely and completely.
  • Try not to make general comments about the book. In fact, you can use explicit quotations or examples.
  • Lastly, if possible, request a friend to appraise the review. As a matter of fact, fresh eyes can often catch mistakes in the review that you might have missed out.

By following the above given tips for writing a book review, one can easily learn to review a book without any major error or mistake. However, in order to be able to write a completely effective book review, thorough knowledge and practice is needed.

Writing Headings

Whether or not an audience will read the whole piece of content often relies on the effectiveness of its heading. Thus, for almost every kind of content, the heading is the most vital part. Due to this, every writer tries his best to write a heading that is, not only attractive and appealing, but also impressive. Although there is no particular method for creating an efficient title, there are definite principles that you can pursue to come about with headings that grasp attention. The present article on “Writing Headings” provides some basic tips that should lead you toward that success.

Tips for Writing Headings

Target the Benefits

Normally, readers choose to read such articles, which directly benefit them. In other words, they are concerned with the articles that educate them something new, attempt to solve their difficulties, or provide something that is significant to them. Due to this, effectual headings are often the ones that expose the advantages of the content to the proposed reader. However, the heading does not necessarily need to directly state the benefits of the content. It only needs to offer at least a clue that there is something in the content that might be valuable to the readers. To be brief, the heading should be a tease of the advantages that expect the viewers.

Make It Exceptional

Several copywriters and marketers have a relentless idea of what type of title works for the readers. Due to this, they likely settle for the headings, which are weary and basically unproductive. You must realise that such headings do not attract readers any longer and, in fact, annoys them most of the time. Therefore, stay away from unoriginal headings and instead create your own original ones. The titles do not inevitably need to be revolutionary. However, you must attempt to play around with words and come up with a heading that is unusual and remarkable.

Be Particular

A good heading attracts a specific group of people. It consists of phrases or words that instantly impact the audience for whom the content or copy is written. Specificity is important as readers, particularly those on the Internet, are extremely perceptive. They are eager to know immediately whether or not the content is meant for them. If they get no appropriate information from the heading, they simply overlook the article in general and move on to another website. Therefore, always make it a point to think about your readers while writing headings. Try to include words and phrases that are reasonable and interesting to them.

Don’t Compromise

While writing for an online business, one may be enticed to add keywords to his heading. After all, this will help in increasing the web traffic. However, as much as this helps your SEO, adding keywords to the heading can actually hamper its quality. While in the desire for crafting the most SEO-friendly heading, one may of course compromise the other elements that should be present in the heading. Thus, one must be concerned about the more essential aspects of writing headings before focusing on SEO. However, wherever possible, one can always add in some appropriate keywords while retaining the effectiveness of the heading, following the above mentioned tips.

Writing headings is not as difficult as it may seem in the beginning. By following the above mentioned tips, you will soon understand why writing headings can be actually unproblematic. However, it will just take some gradual practice to perfect it.

Why Editing Matters?

Why Editing Matters?

Why editing matters ? Has this question crossed your mind?  How many times have you come across a written piece in a newspaper, magazine, webpage or even a book and wondered where are the editors? It goes without saying that a single typographical error in a reading can hamper the writer’s as well as the publication’s reputation. Though, in this case the editors may not be at fault. Perhaps, the editors had done their best and the error was the result of a misprint. Nevertheless, there’s no denying the fact that errors hamper the flow of any written piece and are a source of discomfit for readers.

The point in this article is not to highlight how even in the best writing we can find scope for editing, but how better editing can bring the best out of any piece of writing.

Some Points on Why Editing Matters?

One of the vital aspects of writing is editing. Many a time editing becomes more effective when it is done by others. Most writers get their work edited by professional editors. This is because there are instances when you may not notice obvious errors in your own writing because you are reading what you are thinking, and not what is written. Writers are so engrossed with their own ideas and creations that they cannot discover even basic errors and typos from their manuscripts. That is why even the best writers have their work verified by professional editors.

So, what’s special about professional editors? Professional editors are trained to notice errors in a document and modify it appropriately to improve it to the acceptable standard. In other words, they have an excellent eye for detail that enables them to detect even the smallest of errors.

A professional editor is also a specialist editor, who alters the structure and content of a piece of writing, as they know what works and what doesn’t. Perhaps, this is the reason why editors are so highly regarded in the world of publishing and considered the real catalysts behind any publications’ success. A professional editor can bring more clarity and readability to a text by rephrasing sentences and reordering words. This makes the reading unambiguous and lucid thus ensuing the smooth flow of ideas offered in the content. In addition, substantive editing done by professional editors eliminates spelling and punctuation mistakes, errors in grammar and syntax, while also improving the style and rhythm of the text.

 

Editing and Proofreading Services

In recent times, our world has become quite competitive and ambitious. With the rise of competitive industrial markets, efficiently written communication has become more critical than ever. An expressive and concisely prepared business document not only reflects professionalism, but also helps in making an affirmative first impression on the prospective business clients. On the other hand, if a business document comes into view as confusing and unclear and does not successfully communicate the intended message, it can most certainly place your reputation at threat and immediately acquire you a tag of being sloppy and unprofessional. The present article on “Editing and Proofreading Services” provides some basic information about professional editing and proofreading services, and also gives detailed information on why to take the help of these professionals.

Why Use Professional Editing and Proofreading Services

Usually, people fail to notice the importance of professional editing and proofreading services. They actually do not realize the values these professional services can attach to their written documents. Ahead of submitting any written document for publication, it is necessary to make sure that it communicates the intended message in the most understandable way as the business documents are an indication of our principles, as well as standards of our association. Therefore, it is always beneficial to take the help of professional editing and proofreading services before publishing our written documents.

Let’s look upon some points so as to why one should necessarily get the help of professional editing and proofreading services.

  • Written communications are of major significance. It is vital for a written document to be understandable and to the point. In case, it is not, there lurks a risk of losing a prospective business client since you were either unable to give enough attention to the details, or your document was unsuccessful in impressing the potential customer or financier.
  • Formerly, companies depended mainly on in-house services for their editing and proofreading requirements. However, because of growing time limitations and competition, companies are now gradually more outsourcing their editing and proofreading requirements to the professional services.
  • In the business world, terms like ‘editing’ and ‘proofreading’ are regularly used interchangeably. However, these two terms can be distinguished given that they focus on dissimilar features of writing. On one hand, editing focuses on the tone and flow of the manuscript. On the other hand, proofreading seeks to certify the rightness of the manuscript. By taking the help of a professional service provider, you can relax confident that both techniques are applied, use of which comes out with an outstandingly written document.
  • Business documents are a lot more vulnerable to mistakes as these documents characteristically involve association. Besides, the majority of business writers work under constraint and have to meet fixed targets. Inappropriate tone, repetition in words or facts, grammatical errors and spelling mistakes are some of the frequent mistakes in business writing. Writers habitually get so absorbed in their work that they often fail to observe those mistakes. Hence, the task must be transferred into the skilled hands of a professional editor and/or proofreader.

Concisely, professional editing and proofreading services can manage the written documents in a more efficient manner than in-house services or using word-processing tools. Accordingly, we will get a wholesome professional representation that eventually develops reliance and reverence. This result must not be undervalued by any business. In fact, it may perhaps be what exists between you and the client you should protect.

Content Development

Content is the most essential part of any blog or website. In order to make the content interesting for the readers, the content needs to be exceptional and simultaneously creative. Readability of any content is determined by how the content has been developed. Content development is a chief factor of content writing and more or less content that is reasonable, appropriate and convincing.

The present article on “Content Development” provides some basic tips to keep in mind, and hopefully, even follow them while writing any content for blogs, websites, etc. to come out with an exceptional piece of work.

Tips for Content Development

  • There exist certain features that manage the prospective of good quality content. Basically, it is a three step procedure. The first is to identify the target reader or audience, second is to write the content in a convincing manner, and third is to make use of appropriate keywords in the content.
  • While searching on the internet for a certain topic or a subject matter, we usually come across numerous websites and blogs related to the same topic and material. But what renders a particular webpage separate from others is its content development.
  • While writing content for any webpage or website, it is essential to dedicate a sufficient amount of time and explore into the subject matter to come about with significant content.
  • While writing content, ensure that the content you are writing is directed towards the anticipated reader/audience. In other words, the reader must find the content valuable enough to read it till the last part.
  • In order to improve readability of the content, try to use standard English as far as possible. Avoid using jargons or other difficult words and phrases for enabling the reader to understand the content easily. However, one can always put efforts in making the content appealing and engaging.
  • Spelling mistakes and grammatical errors can be serious negative aspects of any content. So, it is always advantageous to proofread the content before publishing or putting it online.
  • Depending on the topic one is writing the content on, the language can be formal or informal. However, make sure that the language is realistic and persuasive.
  • When a reader is searching some information on the internet, he/she types in specific keywords on a search-engine and is thus presented with links for the related webpages that have those keywords in their content. Therefore, it is always advised to insert some suitable keywords while developing the content. Doing so helps in improving the page rank of the webpage, and thus, develops the content readability.

Apart from all the above mentioned points, the most important point to be taken into account while content development is that the content must communicate a specific message, so that the reader realises the content to be worth reading.

Overcome a Writer’s Block

Every writer has a dream of writing such a book that draws the attention and admiration of the right audience. Nonetheless, even the prominent writers cannot give surety about excellence in their writings or literary works. In the world of literature, writer’s block has been identified as the most unpleasant enemy of authors. Writer’s block is nothing but the obstacle that gets in the way of the writers while producing a great piece of work. The present article on “Overcome a Writer’s Block” provides some general knowledge and points that will help you to understand the basic concept of a writer’s block and how to overcome it in the future.

How to overcome a writer’s block

Meaning of writer’s block

  • Although not everyone believes in the concept of a writer’s block, there are some writers who do experience problems while writing at some point or other.
  • This is the point where a writer thinks that there is basically no way for him to start writing. He feels as if he is trapped in the centre of his plot and cannot move ahead.
  • Writer’s block may occur due to the panic and nervousness usually experienced by writers. It is that phase when a writer, even when he wants to write, cannot seem to understand how to start.
  • Even though he knows that he has adequate information, he still remains doubtful whether he has all the facts to sustain it. In such situations, the writer doubts his own abilities to express his opinions in words even though he believes that he can produce an impressive book.
  • Despite all these perplexing thoughts, which are more or less normal for a writer; there are certainly some ways by which a writer’s block can be defeated.

Source of inspiration

  • Do not get distracted by others or what they might say about your book. No one would expect a writer to write a perfect book in an hour or so. Therefore, take your time to come up with some wonderful ideas.
  • For some writers, inspiration is the way to overcome a writer’s block. While for some writers their friends and family, relationships, nature, etc. are the source of inspiration.
  • Inspiration might not be the best method to overcome a writer’s block for all writers. Thus, while writing, you need to have an exceptional approach to overcome your writer’s block.

Change in setting

  • Sometimes, sitting in front of the laptop for a long time may seem boring and dull. Therefore, changing to a new setting or environment might help you in refreshing your mind and thinking better.
  • Every writer should try some different approach or new surroundings from time-to-time so as to enliven his spirits and come up with new ideas for the story.

Revisit the fundamentals

  • Do not waste time on trivial matters. Rather, concentrate on the present problem of the writer’s block and how to overcome it. So that you can continue to work and complete it.
  • If you still feel trapped by your dreary moments even after doing all these different ways; do not worry, as there always is the fundamental writing guide coming up for you.
  • Try to follow the basics of writing. These include, setting your characters, picturing out what happens, and putting events in a proper place. As long as you have these basics on your screen, you can be sure that you are on the correct position to explore the events to compose a narrative.

Escape from the routine

  • In case, the fundamentals do not work for you; you can probably think of some other method. Try to get away from the routine and usual.
  • Try writing the climax and the conclusion of the story first. Next, decide on the most appropriate title according to what you have already written. Then, from the title, you can proceed writing the introduction.
  • One doesn’t always need faultless procedural skills to make a writing work excellent. What it actually needs is an exceptional writing skill, which can convert plain words, characters and places into magnificent ventures in the form of a masterpiece.

Perfect writing doesn’t necessarily follow any standards. Each writer has his unique approach towards writing. No matter how successful a writer is, sometimes he too needs to be guided in some ways so as to minimize or totally remove the panic inside him. By following the above mentioned points, you will not only understand the basic concept of a writer’s block, but also how to overcome it.

Business Writing

In today’s cut-throat business scenario, “survival of the fittest” theory has become increasingly applicable. People try out various ways and means to stay afloat or excel in their business. Businessmen always strive to develop new strategies for the growth of the company. And, this can only be achieved when they are able to reach out to people. If their approach is correct, these people can become their future clients, business partners, etc. Thus, communication is indispensable for business activities, and it mainly relies on writing. Business writing refers to any written document used as a medium to communicate and share information. It can be in the form of emails, annual reports, letters, memos, proposals, press releases, brochures, technical documentation, ads, presentations, etc. Planning and implementation of any business activity includes one or more of the above types of business writing. Given its importance, they should be such written so as to be able to convey information in an effective way. Poorly written business writings can lead to disastrous consequences. For many people, however successful they might be, the writing aspect is a stumbling block. So, let us discuss a few tips for business writing that might make it seem a bit easier.

 Tips for Business Writing

  • Knowing your audience is a key aspect of business writing. You should be aware of the target readers for whom you are writing: whether they are young or old, well educated or not-so-well educated, are from a rural or urban background, what they already know about you, what information they need and why, etc.
  • Set your priorities before writing, whether it is just sharing of information, or advertising your product, or explaining the operation of a product, etc. Your writing should help in achieving your purpose.
  • Everyone’s time is precious. So, don’t write lengthy documents. By the time people reach your actual purpose, they might have already lost interest in reading it. Your writing should be simple and to the point.
  • Your writing should be well organized. There should be a logical flow of text and use bullet/number lists to present your information, wherever applicable.
  • Avoid using technical jargons in your writing. Only the persons from that particular field will understand them, but not others. But, if you are writing specifically for a particular group of people, then you can use jargons relevant to that field.
  • Avoid writing in passive voice. People find active voice content more interesting as it has a concise and direct tone. For example: “Doctors use our product” grabs more attention than “Our product is used by doctors”.
  • Keep the language as simple as possible so that people can easily understand. People will lose interest in reading if they come across complicated words.
  • Last, but not the least, ensure that your content is error free. Proofread your draft thoroughly before finalizing it. Grammar, punctuation and spelling errors in your business writings can be suicidal for your purpose. In this regard, you can get quite a few handy grammar tips from Strunk and White’s Elements of Style.

These tips may not help you to master the art of business writing, but it sure will put you on the right track. The right way of communication is essential for the success of any business, small or big. Written material is the first thing that people use to reach out to their employees, clients, investors, etc. People judge a company or product by what they get to read about it. Follow these tips so that your writing serves your purpose.

Interdisciplinary research – Direct Imaging of Single Molecule

Interdisciplinary research has immense potential. I have talked about one of the major discoveries of modern science based on interdisciplinary research in my previous blog, posted on 29th July 2013 (http://blog.manuscriptedit.com/2013/07/ interdisciplinary-research-nobel-prize-chemistry-won-biologists/). Today, let us take another example, where one chemist and one physicist came together and presented us with the direct image of internal covalent bond structure of a single molecule using one of the advanced imaging tools, non-contact Atomic force microscope (nc-AFM). Image1Dr. Felix R.Fischer (http://www.cchem.berkeley.edu/frfgrp/), a young Assistant Professor of Chemistry at University of California (UC), Berkeley along with his collaborator Dr. Michael Crommie (http://www.physics.berkeley.edu/research/crommie/home), also a UC Berkeley Professor of Physics captured the images of internal bond structure of oligo (phenylene-1, 2 ethynylenes) [Reactant1] when it undergoes cyclization to give different cyclic compounds (one of which is shown in the inset picture http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2013/05/30/scientists-capture-first-images-of-molecules-before-and-after-reaction/). Chemists generally determine structure of molecules using different spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR, Uv-vis, etc.) in an indirect manner. The molecular structures, we generally see in the textbooks result from the indirect way of structure determination, either theoretical or experimental or both. It is more like putting together various parts to solve a puzzle. But now, with this ground breaking work of two scientists from UC Berkeley, one can directly see for the very first time in the history of science, how a single molecule undergoes transformation in a chemical reaction, how the atoms reorganized themselves at a certain condition to produce another molecule. No more solving puzzle for next generation of chemists to determine the molecular structure.

HOW interdisciplinary research made it possible:

Well, it was not easy task for the scientists to come up with these spectacular molecular images. Imaging techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), have their limitations, and are often destructive to the organic molecular structure. Advanced technique like nc-AFM where a single carbon monoxide molecule sits on the tip (probe) helps in enhancing the spatial resolution of the microscope, and this method is also non-destructive. The thermal cyclization of the Reactant 1 was probed on an atomically cleaned silver surface, Ag(001) under ultra-high vacuum at single molecular level by STM and nc-AFM. Before probing, the reaction surface and the molecules were chilled at liquid helium temperature, 40K (-2700C). Then the researchers first located the surface molecules by STM and then performed further finetuning with nc-AFM, and the result is what we see in the inset picture. For cyclization, the Reactant 1 was heated at 900C, the products were chilled and probed.  Chilling after heating did not alter the structure of the products. The mechanism of thermal cyclization was also clearly understood, and the mechanistic pathway was in agreement with the theoretical calculations. From the blurred images of STM, Dr. Fischer and Dr. Crommie along with their coworkers presented us crystal clear molecular images with visible internal bond structure. This ground breaking work shows the potential of nc-AFM and unveils secrets of surface bound chemical reactions which will definitely have a huge impact on oil and chemical industries where heterogeneous catalysis is widely used. This technique will also help in creating customized nanostructure for use in electronic devices.

Again this path breaking work was possible due to the collaborative research between chemists and physicists. Hence, the interdisciplinary researches have endless potential.

References

1.    de Oteyza DG, Gorman P, Chen Y-C, Wickenburg S, Riss A, Mowbray DJ, Etkin G, Pedramrazi Z, Tsai H-Z, Rubio A, Crommie MF, Fischer FR. Direct Imaging of Covalent bond structure in Single-molecule chemical reactions. Science (2013); 340: 1434-1437