BioArt is broadly defined as an imaginary live art form that involves micro-organisms; living, semi-living, or assisted living tissues; tissue-cultured cells or tissues; transgenic tissues; biological life processes; dead plants, animals, or even insects; body fluids or serum; and other living organisms.
Bio-artists collate the above-mentioned elements in terms of the technological aspects of science. Often, BioArt raises ethical queries related to the subject of the art.
History of BioArt
The term “BioArt” was coined by Eduardo Kac in 1977 in the context of his famous artwork Time Capsule.
Alexander Fleming was one of the early bio-artists. In fact, Fleming is arguably regarded as the father of BioArt because he was the first scientist to work on micro-organisms (especially bacteria) that were being differentiated by color when grown on a petri plate.
Scientific Domains of BioArt
Domains of BioArt or image making involve descriptions garnered through different scientific methods like genomic mapping, Electrocardiograph (ECG) Electroencephalograph (EEG), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), electrophoretic patterns, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques, protein synthesis and visualization, and phenotypic or genotypic variations.
Advantages of BioArt
- Artists have succeeded in making BioArt a platform for sharing the beauty of the research field and related innovative scientific ideas.
- This type of biological art captures the essence of nature.
- Although BioArt is a recent art form, it has encouraged a healthy debate among scholars, media, and the laity.
- BioArt can also be used to represent complex scientific researches in simple forms such as visual or performing arts.
- BioArt is a fusion of art and science because it is concerned with the presentation of complex life processes as well as vital interactions experienced in the environment.
- Besides the scientific arena, BioArt has carved a niche in literature, psychology, and allied disciplines.
- BioArt has led to the introduction of a sub-field called Biocouture, which is implemented in both fashion and textile industries. Biocouture has also reinvented the concepts of bio-designing and presentation of the art forms.
Dark Side of BioArt
- A major concern regarding BioArt is the disposal of living tissues that are included in the art process.
- Without the use of laboratory equipments and basic scientific expertise, creation of BioArt is a distant dream.
- Many bio-artists transform their body into a work of art. One of the burning examples is the work of Stelarc. In his “Ear on Arm,” he incorporated a live tissue BioArt that resembled the shape of an ear and surgically introduced it into his left arm.
- In some instances, manipulation of the genetic constitution of an organism was done for the sake of introducing an effective BioArt, just for entertainment and pleasure.
- Many research scholars consider BioArt to be an unethical practice.