What Types of Articles Are Published in Academic and Scientific journals?

 

All journals and periodicals publish varied types of content, all generally referred to as articles. However, there are certain technical differences that differentiate the type of publication.

It is important for aspiring authors to understand the different types of publications in order to prepare for one. While choosing a journal for publication, it is also important to understand what type of publication the journal prefers or is presently soliciting. The time period is also a major determinant of what type of publication you should try for.

Types of publication:

Original Research Article: Original research is the most sought after publication; both by authors and also scientific journals and are considered as primary literature. It may be called an Original Article, Research Article, Research, or just Article, depending on the journal. These publications are detailed reporting of original research being presently conducted and conveyed for the first time to the rest of the world. They include hypothesis, background study, methods, results, interpretation of findings, and a discussion of possible implications.

It is also the most difficult to produce as it requires tenacious background research work, and is often a by-product of the actual exercise.

Review article: Academic and scientific journals usually publish two kinds of reviews; literature reviews, often called review articles, and book reviews, which are frequently referred to as reviews. Book reviews are usually solicited by journals from field experts whom they often commission for the review.

Literature reviews are bird’s-eye perspective on the published scholarship in a field of study or narrower area of specialization that provides a critical and constructive analysis of existing published literature in a field, through summary, analysis, and comparison. Scientific journals encourage a specific types of reviews like literature reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses as they are extremely popular with readers. However, one expects a certain level of experience and authority from the author to write such reviews and journals only entertain such entries from select authors.

Brief communications: Brief communications can take the form of short notes, news analysis, letters to editors, Opinions. These publications are marked by their brevity in terms of length, often restricted to 1200-2000 words. Such content has to be also extremely focused on a certain specific aspect with very little scope of theoretical exploration. These types of content are also referred to as ‘Perspectives’and are scholarly reviews or commentaries that present a personal point on widespread notions of ongoing discourse.

Brief communications can be very engaging, especially when directed to an author on a previously published article and if the latter chooses to respond to it. They are also very good sources for references for readers and hence their popularity.

Whatever type of content you choose to write, scientific journals will only publish them if they see value in it for readers. Thus, the quality of the content is critical irrespective of the format and it must enrich the present discourse in the field.

AUTHORSHIP GUIDELINES AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS

All reputed peer-reviewed scientific journals have very well-established systematic structures in place which any author submitting a scientific research paper for publication is expected to abide by. These instructions are shared by the journals in the form of authorship guidelines.

A journal’s instructions for preparing the scientific research paper for submission may seem straightforward in the beginning, yet these instructions can be tricky to follow with precision and consistency. While each journal has its own set of rules and regulations, there are some common features that are mirrored across each.

Authorship: One of the most critical components of manuscript submission is establishing the authorship of the scientific research paper. A solo endeavor by a researcher is a simple case with sole authorship. However, in most practical cases today, scientific research projects and papers often require contributions from many individuals and this makes the assignment of authorship difficult. For instance, you may be working as a researcher in a lab, but working under the supervision or instructions of a lead researcher/project in charge. In such a case, there are risks of conflict of ownership of authorship over any scientific research paper emerging of this project.

Every journal requires one principal point of contact as the author of the manuscript. The journal communicates with this central author for all communications and the onus of the veracity of the content lies with this author. Every journal has author guidelines on how to set the principle authorship and you must follow it stringently.

Copyright: related to the issue of authorship is the issue of copyright over the article. A scientific journal will only accept to publish a manuscript if it is guaranteed copyright over the article it publishes. This, in turn, means you must guarantee that (a) the article is not submitted for publication to any other journal, or the similar findings by the same set of researchers in not replicated in any other publication; (b) the co-authors have agreed not only to have you as a principal author but also entitled you to permit copyrights to the journal; (c) your institution/academy has no issues with copyright over publications of research activities conducted there.

It is advisable to follow the author guidelines very carefully in the process of making the submission to avoid copyright problems later on.

The rigor of study: For reputed journals to accept your publication, you have to establish the rigor of your study. Empirical research designs need to state the extent to which the studies are representative of a particular population, with supplementary materials including data quality control, alternative models, explicit formulas used in statistical analyses, and modeling.

Today there exist several professional services who specialize in scientific journal publication as they are well versed with the particular requirements of each such journal. They can help a young author navigate the complicated route to a successful publication and it is advisable to resort to such services for a hassle-free experience.

Lack of international representation on scientific journals’ editorial boards

Emilio Bruna a biologist from the University of Florida, and his team found in a study that “Academic journals lack international editorial board individuals, as most editors are based either in the US or UK.”

Bruna’s team analyzed 24 environmental biology journals’ editorial boards in the vicinity of 1985 and 2014. Out of the 3827 scientists who served on the journals’ editorial boards, 55% were based in the US and 12% in the UK. 98% of editors-in-chief are based in the ‘global north.’ The Royal Society of Chemistry’s journals’ 2017 statistics show 30% of editorial board members across all journals are based in the US, 12% in China and 12% in the UK.

Reference link: https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/most-scientific-editors-still-come-from-us-or-uk/3008426.article

Scientific Journals: The Knowledge Storehouse

Scientific journals date back to 1665, when the publication of research results began. A scientific journal publishes scientific data periodically on recent breakthroughs in the field of science.

Who benefits from scientific journals?

At present, there is widespread acceptance of scientific journals and articles published in them. This magnifies the importance of the researches brought to light in such publications. It has been proven that scientific journals are of great import for academicians, researchers, and students of science and allied fields. The journals also have a profound impact on the overall educational system.

Advantages derived from scientific journals

  • Scientific journals promote and develop active learning skills among students and researchers. In fact, current research shows that reading journal articles provides an impetus for deeper thinking.
  • As you start browsing different research articles in journals, you will notice that the findings are  well organized and the overall conclusions are backed by evidence. The scientific articles carry research-oriented analyses or findings of researchers as well as students.
  • The research papers tend to keep pace with recent developments in the relevant field.
  • Researchers or students can derive valuable information for their own research area because they come across timely updates through these publications.
  • Scientific journals widen the scope for exploring one’s own research subject.
  • They help readers gain in-depth knowledge, especially through citation of case studies that can act as a research base. This encourages a thorough analysis and often leads to the formulation of novel hypotheses.
  • Even if you are engaged in research toward the submission of your doctoral thesis, you can benefit from valuable feedback if you publish papers in relevant scientific journals.
  • It is possible to search for and access the latest research topics easily from scientific publications.
  • Academic credentials of researchers receive a major boost from published papers in scientific journals, which stands them in good stead for their career objectives.
  • Scientific journals provide a platform for research scholars to express and pen down their research ideas at length.
  • Scientific journals represent a varied spectrum because each journal represents a specific stream of research. Such scientific publications bridge the gap between articles and books by publishing the researches of different authors, thus creating a single interactive platform.