Citations are the documentation required in a research paper to get accepted for academic purposes or publications. While writing an article or any academic content, an author must include citations (in-text) whenever they refer to a sentence, paragraph, or quote from another source. It basically acknowledges the fact that the information used in a research paper did not originate with the writer.
Types of Citation
Different types of citations contain a different set of rules on how to cite sources in academic writing. There are certain ways the citations can be arranged in a document: Parenthetical citations, Endnote, Footnote, works cited as Lists, Bibliography, etc.
The most common citation styles are MLA, APA, Chicago, as their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers.
- MLA (Modern Language Association) style in the Humanities (e.g. literature or languages)
- APA (American Psychological Association) style in the Social sciences (e.g. Psychology or Education)
- Chicago in History (Two types: Notes and Bibliography & Author-Date)
APA (American Psychological Association)
APA Style of referencing is the most commonly used form citations in academic and research papers related to social and behavioral sciences by students, researchers, and professionals and it is recommended by American Psychological Association, USA. The APA system updates the referencing guidelines in electronic formats in a separate guide called the APA Manual, which the University students and researchers can use in book format or online through the library.
Disciplines using APA Style include Social Communication, Administration, Business, Education, Political Science, and Psychology.
There are two things to be considered when working with the APA citation style: in-text citations and the reference page. An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). APA style recommends using a reference list for references cited in the text of a paper rather than a bibliography. A reference list includes only those references which were actually cited in the text of the paper. The references must be corresponding to each other.
APA formatting guidelines with Examples
APA in-text citation style
The in-text citation uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Mohanty, 2007). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Mohanty, 2007, p. 77). A paragraph number can be used for websites and e-books as they do not have page numbers.
APA Reference List citation style
- Journals and Periodicals
Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your reference list.
Author Last Name, First Name Initial. (Publication Date in parenthesis). Article Title. Journal Name (Italicized), Volume (Italicized), Issue number, beginning page-end page. DOI or URL
Mohanty, B., & Mohammed, A.B.C. (2001). Title of the Paper. Bioscience Reseapro Journals, 15(112), 123-153. DOI: 10.1433005e24/brjda/21d46
Name of author (last name, first initial). The date of the publication in parentheses. The italicized title of the book. Edition of the book in parentheses. Name of the Publisher. DOI number or URL or ISBN. Place period after each element.
May, K.V.R. C., & Abdul, Z. (Eds.). (2018). Title of the Book. Reseapro Academic Press. ISBN 97afqwf28137666.
- Website/Online Source
Name of author (last name, first initial). (The date of the publication in parentheses). Title of article. Website name. Website URL
Keay, Y. (1191, June 22). Article Title or Headline. Reseapro News. https://www.reseapronews.com/news/national/1191/06/10/dsd-martin-wdff-fwfn-fwf-for-office-india.html
APA Citation for a Research Paper Overview
Hundreds of reference examples and their respective in-text citations are presented in the 7th edition Publication Manual. The Examples of most common research that writers site are available on this page and other additional examples are available in the Publication Manual.
To cite an appropriate and specific source, first select a category (e.g., Journals) and then select the appropriate type of work (e.g., articles) and follow the relevant example provided under each category.
Please note: When work does not fit within another category that is provided, please use the website’s category.