Writing Sequential Numerical References for a Research Paper

Reference list: Introduction

A formal reference is a published or unpublished source from which information is sought while writing a research paper. A reference list is a list of the information used in the original paper, sorted in the order in which it occurred. It is normally found in the last part of the paper, nevertheless, it can also be found as a footnote or an endnote.

Significance of a Citing your Sources

Referencing is essential for conducting excellent research and for your readers to understand how you conducted your research. Knowing why you need to reference can help you see why it’s critical to know how to reference.

Types of Reference/Citation Styles

A citation style specifies the material that must be included in a citation, as well as the order in which the information is presented, as well as punctuation and another formatting. There are a variety of methods for citing sources from your research. The citation style used can vary depending on the academic discipline.

There are four referencing techniques or conventions that are regularly utilized. The Modern Languages Association, the American Psychological Association, the Harvard, and the Modern Humanities Research Association are the four systems. Further styles used in styling include Oxford, Chicago and Vancouver (numeric).

Numeric style of Reference format

Vancouver is a numbered style. In Vancouver referencing, every data/information is assigned a number that relates to the sequence same as it appears in the text, which is a numeric reference style. The same number is used if the same source is mentioned more than once in the text.

Using references in the manuscript as citations (i.e. in-text citations)

You can enter the number in brackets or as a superscript when adding an in-text citation to your document. Whichever option you use, be sure you maintain consistency throughout your work. e.g. (1) or [1] or 1.

Include the citation number for each piece of work if you want to cite more than one source in a sentence. To connect two integers, use a hyphen. g. There are many studies that have examined the effect of alcohol on cognitive impairment (1,3, 4-7, 9).

Example: These findings were in agreement with the results of previous studies [2,22-24]. It is noteworthy that some researchers have reported that BMI does not correlate with H. pylori incidence [8,23].

Listing references (i.e. reference list at the end of the paper)

It is not necessary to mention the author in the citation in the text while using the Vancouver style, but you must include the author in your reference list at the conclusion. This list appears at the end of the paper, in numerical order same as it appeared in the text.

Example: Pattnaik K, Das K. Property rights, control, and the performance of firms in Indian industry. Journal of Economics 2019;42(1): 109-138.

APA (American Psychological Association) Citation for a Research Paper

Citations: Introduction

Citations are the documentation required in a research paper to get accepted for academic purposes or publications. While writing an article or any academic content, an author must include citations (in-text) whenever they refer to a sentence, paragraph, or quote from another source. It basically acknowledges the fact that the information used in a research paper did not originate with the writer.

Types of Citation

Different types of citations contain a different set of rules on how to cite sources in academic writing. There are certain ways the citations can be arranged in a document: Parenthetical citations, Endnote, Footnote, works cited as Lists, Bibliography, etc.

The most common citation styles are MLA, APA, Chicago, as their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers.

 

APA (American Psychological Association)

APA Style of referencing is the most commonly used form citations in academic and research papers related to social and behavioral sciences by students, researchers, and professionals and it is recommended by American Psychological Association, USA. The APA system updates the referencing guidelines in electronic formats in a separate guide called the APA Manual, which the University students and researchers can use in book format or online through the library.

Disciplines using APA Style include Social Communication, Administration, Business, Education, Political Science, and Psychology.

There are two things to be considered when working with the APA citation style: in-text citations and the reference page. An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). APA style recommends using a reference list for references cited in the text of a paper rather than a bibliography. A reference list includes only those references which were actually cited in the text of the paper. The references must be corresponding to each other.

APA formatting guidelines with Examples

APA in-text citation style

The in-text citation uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Mohanty, 2007). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Mohanty, 2007, p. 77). A paragraph number can be used for websites and e-books as they do not have page numbers.

APA Reference List citation style

  1. Journals and Periodicals

Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your reference list.

Rule:

Author Last Name, First Name Initial. (Publication Date in parenthesis). Article Title. Journal Name (Italicized), Volume (Italicized), Issue number, beginning page-end page. DOI or URL

Example:

Mohanty, B., & Mohammed, A.B.C. (2001). Title of the Paper. Bioscience Reseapro Journals, 15(112), 123-153. DOI: 10.1433005e24/brjda/21d46

  1. Books

Rule:

Name of author (last name, first initial). The date of the publication in parentheses. The italicized title of the book. Edition of the book in parentheses. Name of the Publisher. DOI number or URL or ISBN. Place period after each element.

Example:

May, K.V.R. C., & Abdul, Z. (Eds.). (2018). Title of the Book. Reseapro Academic Press. ISBN 97afqwf28137666.

  1. Website/Online Source

Rule:

Name of author (last name, first initial). (The date of the publication in parentheses). Title of article. Website name. Website URL

Example:

Keay, Y. (1191, June 22). Article Title or Headline. Reseapro News. https://www.reseapronews.com/news/national/1191/06/10/dsd-martin-wdff-fwfn-fwf-for-office-india.html

APA Citation for a Research Paper Overview

Hundreds of reference examples and their respective in-text citations are presented in the 7th edition Publication Manual. The Examples of most common research that writers site are available on this page and other additional examples are available in the Publication Manual.

To cite an appropriate and specific source, first select a category (e.g., Journals) and then select the appropriate type of work (e.g., articles) and follow the relevant example provided under each category.

Please note: When work does not fit within another category that is provided, please use the website’s category.

How To Write A Highly Citable Journal Article?

Publishing Research Work is essential for a Researcher. How many times the paper is cited after it is published is also very critical. The worthiness of the Research Paper is determined by the Citations.

What is a Citation?

A Citation can be stated as a Reference to the Source of Information used in your Research Paper. Write the Papers and publish them with proper Citation. During the Publication, you cite different references which you have followed.

Why Citation matter?

  • Quality of your Research
  • H-Index – If the Article Citation is increased, H-Index also increases. It is a number that gives the Researcher Efficiency and Impact. The number depends on the papers a researcher publishes, and the citation it gets. It measures the Efficiency and Reference of the Publication of a Researcher.

 

Importance of Citation

When you are a Researcher who has published a Paper recently and thinking about how to increase your citation, these are the steps to increase the visibility of the Published Paper among the Research Community.

  • The best way is to upload your Scientific Journal Article on Social Platforms such as Twitter, Linkedin, Facebook, Youtube where you can attract an audience from different backgrounds. Let people know what your Research is about.
  • Publishing Lots of Papers, if you have good data and planning to publish your data then make a Schedule, Plan your writing and Publish your Research Articles regularly. Cite your previous works and also your Colleague’s Work. Share part of your data with the Public.
  • Update your Profile on different Platforms like Google Scholar, Academia, Scopus. Use a Consistent form of your paper on all of your forms.
  • Publish more Review Articles. Review Papers get more citations than Research Articles.
  • Use Short Attractive Titles to get more Citation.
  • Use unique, Trending Keywords in the Abstract.
  • Collaborate with different Scientific Communities. Make Collabs to become Co-Authors of the Research Paper.
  • Work as a Volunteer in Journals where you can Review Papers and also upgrade your Scientific Knowledge in a particular field.
  • Target your Journals. Focus on New Journals, Open Access Journals, and Journals that offer Free Publication have greater impact.
  • Publish in Special Issues – You get wide publicity which attracts more Audiences.
  • Socialize and try to attend more Conferences where you can meet the scientific community who are working on different aspects of Science and participate by publishing your Research Paper.
  • Expert Advice is highly valuable to get Citation. Cross Check your data before you publish.
  • Target High Impact Factor for Paper Publication. Impact Factor decides the Quality of the Research Journal.
  • Use the Image Search Option. Make attractive Graphical Abstracts which is engaging and informative.
  • Try to cite Recent and Relevant Papers alone.
  • Cite a Renowned Person in your field of research that will make your paper a reputed one.

 

Conclusion

A High Citation Score is one of the Parameters to get a Postdoc Position. By following the above ways, your work will be visible and your citation score will increase. The most important way of getting citations lies in the contribution of the Research Excellence.

HOW TO REUSE OLD ACADEMIC PAPERS

While pursuing a career or academic research and publication, it is only natural to expect academicians to develop on their previous works or pursue a set line of investigation. More often than not, research or experimental investigation spans over years and researchers may indulge in multiple publications on the matter which builds on their previous works.

However, reusing one’s own previous publication is a taboo that comes under the ambit of self-plagiarism. This is a great dilemma that is strongly challenged by many academicians who argue using one’s own work is not ethically plagiarism. However, there are certain limitations on how one can use one’s previous works, and therefore one has to be careful about how to use them.

What is the Concern?

To best understand why there are limitations to text recycling, one has to understand the reason why it is restricted. Many unscrupulous authors have been scoring multiple publications by simply rehashing the same content over and over again. This was red-flagged in the academic community, as these publications go against the ethics of academic publication. They do not offer new value or insights on the subject; they are not pushing the boundary of knowledge; they are just done for the base intention of having more publication credits or citation.

How to reuse your own content?

However, there is a genuine case of reusing one’s own content for legitimate reasons and that too is well understood. To avoid the vice of multiple publications, there are some checks and balances suggested.

The context: The context of text recycling is the most defining factor. You may have done a certain publication says while reporting your own findings. Tomorrow, you are looking to develop a review article in which you want to posit your own findings with other publications. In this case, you may definitely refer to your previous content, but it needs to be edited to fit the present context. You cannot simply copy-paste from the previous publication as it does very little value added to the news article. Edit, paraphrase, and contextualize the previous content and you can avoid the pitfall of self-plagiarism.

Citation: Even if you are using your own content, you have to ensure proper referencing and citation as you would for any other literature review. Offer the content as something you have already published before and not as something you are offering now. You also need to develop a logical flow that justifies these citations, or else you may be found guilty of just recycling text to cover up for lack of original content for the new article.

Journal selection: Journal selection is critical for articles recycling text. If you are looking to publish a series of articles in a specific journal, then referring to previous publications via recycling text has a certain context. If you are submitting articles to various journals with recycling text, it may be red-flagged under self-plagiarism.

Remembers, reusing own content is not a crime; the crime lies in the dishonesty involved in the process.

How to Promote Your articles and Track them

Getting a journal publication is an achievement; but letting the world know about it is essential for career progression. In the academic world flooded with numerous publications, it is important to promote your work amongst your peers and professional colleagues.

At the same time, it is also important to keep track of the reach and impact of your article. The real merit of a publication is not just the number of reads but also number of citation and recall of the article.

Here are some important tools to promote your article and keep track of it.

  • Normally journals share pdf of published articles which one can share via mail to colleagues and targeted audiences. Do ensure to ask the journals to provide your e-mail id or professional account links in your profile. You can also share digital links of the articlewhich increases chances of clicks and thereby online readership of your article.
  • It is advisable to share printed copies of the article with seniors, peers and especially those whose articles you have used as citation in your own article,along with a short note of introduction or expressing gratitude, as the case may be. Sharing physical copies also raises chances of citation for your own article, and it is a good way of getting acquainted in the peer group.
  • Regularly update your university web page, your personal professional accounts or blogs with your publications. Share short briefs of your research with keywords. This will help your profile be highlighted in general Google searches on the field of you your research by other academicians unknown to you.
  • Use social media platforms for outreach. LinkedIn, Twitter posts or blogs are useful means of promoting one’s article. You can also post links of your article on general online platforms or blogs where you interact with other academicians for online discussions on research Use hashtags or keywords to link your article to relevant topics.
  • It is advisable to get an ORCID registration for yourself. ORCID or Open Research and Contributor ID is a unique ID for every individual which can then be used to track all publications and citation This helps avoid confusions over names, referencing, or mistaken identification. By registering and using an ORCID ID you can easily distinguish yourself and assure that your work is attributed only to yourself.
  • While there exist other platforms and databases which cover a portion of your total output (e.g. Scopus or Web of Science), or only certain types of outputs (e.g. journal articles), you can add all of your publications, works and activities to your ORCID record to create a comprehensive listing in one place, including outputs like datasets, peer review activities and more.

Besides accounts in such platforms, it is also advisable to create a simple Google alert for yourself. This is an easy tool to get records of which all digital platforms are best serving your purpose.

 

What Is a Good Impact factor of a Journal?

Any researcher looking to publish an article gets tangled in the web of journal impact factor and how to select the best journal to target. While it is easy to know the impact factor of a journal, it is altogether a different challenge as to how to interpret this number. Here is an easy guide to journal impact factor and what it means.

What is the impact factor of a journal?

This is the easiest question to answer! The Journal impact factor is a measured frequency-based on citation numbers of articles from a journal in a particular year. First introduced by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information, the simple formula is Impact factor =A/B for any given year (X), where A is the number of citation of articles published in years (X-1 & X-2) by indexed journals during Year X; and B is the total number of citable items like articles and reviews published by that journal in the years (X-1 & X-2). Impact factors are calculated each year by Thomson Scientific for those journals that it indexes (it was 12,298 for 2017) and are published in JournalCitation Reports.

So, what are the caveats?

  • Remember, the impact factor is always dated back 3 years; one cannot know the impact factor of the present year as it will come after 2 years.
  • Impact factor analysis is limited to the 12,298 journals indexed for the JournalCitation Reports covering 27 research disciplines only. Impact factor can be calculated only after completing the minimum of 3 years of publication and therefore it cannot be calculated for a brand new journal
  • The impact factor only denotes citation of journals and not individual articles That is done by other measures like the H-index.

How do we interpret the value of a journal’s impact factor?

This is where things start getting tricky! In most fields, the impact factor of 10 or greater is considered an excellent score while 3 is flagged as good and the average score is less than 1.

However, the impact factor is best read in terms of subject matter in the form of the 27 research disciplines identified in the JournalCitation Reports. Some science streams have higher frequencies of citation while some subjects like streams in humanities may have a lower frequency of citation.

The best means of judging a journal based on the impact factor is noting the comparative score of the journal with others in the same field. So, if a journal A has a score of (say) 5 while the next journal B has a score of 2, that is different from a journal C having a score of 10 while the next journal D has a score of 9. It is the relative score that matters while choosing a journal for publication.

In Conclusion

The impact factor of a journal, although the most credible metric for judging journals, must be properly contextualized. There are other factors too must be considered for articles published in any journal.

How to increase citation count for any research paper in 10 different ways

If you are an already published author, you may know how important the number of citations to your research work is. For those who are students or someone just here to know how it all works, read on!

A citation can be simply defined as “a reference to the source of information used in your research”. The amount of papers you publish is important to your career. However, the number of time your work gets cited by others is even more vital as it shows the impact your research has in that particular field. Increasing citations may help in securing funding for your research too as agencies look at combination as well as number citation made in a paper before making decisions on research grants.

Here are 10 things that you should keep in mind in order to be a well-published and frequently cited author:

  1. Cite your own previous work(s)                                                                                        

It is always a good idea to cite your previous work in your current or ongoing paper but it only if your previous work is relevant to your new one. However, it is not advised to cite every work you have ever done to increase your citations. To someone evaluating your work, it may give off a vibe that you may not want them to have.

  1. Select unique keywords                                                                                              

Based on the topic of your research paper, choose a handful of keywords (4-6) that you feel researchers in your field will be using to search for data. Try incorporating them throughout your paper, using them on abstract, headings or subheadings and making sure it is not repetitive.

  1. Keep your name consistent in all your work

This may not seem as interesting but it is also true that keep your name consistent on all your works will help you get the credits that you deserve. Apart from paper, use the same technique on your emails and email signatures, preferably a professional one. If you have a fairly common name, consider getting a research identifier such as an ORCID.

  1. Crosscheck your data before you publish

Aside from reading, re-reading and proofreading your paper, do the same for any data that will help connect a researcher back to you. Incorrect information may make an author drop your citation altogether.

  1. Share part of your information to the public

Platforms like SlideShare, Datacite, Figshare or Wikipedia can help your work reach out more people irrespective of your work available for a fee or open to all. If your paper is open access, publish your pre or post-publication work to a repository.

  1. Socialize and present your paper at conferences

Conferences are the best place for any researcher to understand the current trends in a particular. While this may not dramatically increase citations of your work, it sure will boost more visibility to your work. And besides that, building connections always prove to be helpful in any field of work.

  1. Share and let others know what you’re doing

Use your social media pages to announce what you’re working on especially the interesting tidbits of it without giving away much. Best places would promote would be LinkedIn, Twitter, Reddit, and Facebook Quora and Google+.

  1. Publish a review

Reviews are considered to be one of the highest qualities of research; hence they are cited very often. Since you must have reviewed research work for your own paper, it will be a good idea to post a review as well.

  1. Cite your colleagues to get cited yourself

If you use your colleagues work as citations in your own work, It will not only provide more dimension to your work but it will likely increase their chances of citing your work as well.

  1. Publish your work in a well-renowned journal

Since a majority of researchers would choose a work that is published in one of the top journals in their field, publishing in one of them will boost your visibility even further as researchers would trust your work more.

Wiley launches new data sharing and citation policies

John Wiley and Sons, Inc. has launched the new data sharing and citation policies, which will be implemented in all the Wiley journals. The primary focus is enabling the researchers to reuse the experimental results as well as support the development of new work based on previous findings. These new data sharing policies will definitely improve the efficiency of the research processes with an intention to support the critical goals of transparency and reproducibility.

Reference Link: http://www.stm-publishing.com/wiley-announces-new-data-sharing-and-citation-policies-to-improve-transparency-in-research/

Self-Archiving: A path to greater citation

As subscription and open access publication charges skyrocket, self-archiving has become the sought after mode for gaining high citations for research paper. This method of archiving allows the works of researchers to reach out to maximum number of people- peers in the research fraternity and also the common people. This helps maximize research impact by guaranteeing open access to all, regardless of their ability to pay.

What is self-archiving?

It is the practice of putting digital versions of scientific literature online making it freely available on the Internet for everyone to view. In other words, self-archiving makes your research widely visible, accessible, searchable, and useable, thereby increasing its reach and impact, and in the processing increasing the number of citations it receives.

When to self-archive?

Research paper can be self-archived either before the peer review process commences or after it has been peer reviewed and published.

Version of the paper printed before the peer review process begins is known as pre-print. Whereas refereed post-print is that version of the paper which is printed after the paper has been reviewed and published. All versions of papers available online are referred to as e-prints.

Where to self-archive?

Research articles can be self-archived in electronic repositories or on personal servers.

  • Institutional repositories: Many universities provide scholars from their institutions to upload there research online for their peers to have free access to their work.
  • Subject-based repositories: Some online repositories are subject specific and are every popular in that subject area. For example, PubMed for biomedical studies; arXiv most popularly for physics, mathematics, and computer science.
  • Personal servers: Researchers upload their work on their personal web pages or some social networking sites specially created for researchers like ResearchGate.

There are two ways of self-archiving- green open access and gold open access. Most journals now days are providing authors these methods to help them increase citations of their work. Self-archiving is considered the future of archiving of paper where the authors as well as readers can without paying exorbitant price share as well as access researches and get information about the latest development happening.