Reference list: Introduction

A formal reference is a published or unpublished source from which information is sought while writing a research paper. A reference list is a list of the information used in the original paper, sorted in the order in which it occurred. It is normally found in the last part of the paper, nevertheless, it can also be found as a footnote or an endnote.

Significance of a Citing your Sources

Referencing is essential for conducting excellent research and for your readers to understand how you conducted your research. Knowing why you need to reference can help you see why it’s critical to know how to reference.

Types of Reference/Citation Styles

A citation style specifies the material that must be included in a citation, as well as the order in which the information is presented, as well as punctuation and another formatting. There are a variety of methods for citing sources from your research. The citation style used can vary depending on the academic discipline.

There are four referencing techniques or conventions that are regularly utilized. The Modern Languages Association, the American Psychological Association, the Harvard, and the Modern Humanities Research Association are the four systems. Further styles used in styling include Oxford, Chicago and Vancouver (numeric).

Numeric style of Reference format

Vancouver is a numbered style. In Vancouver referencing, every data/information is assigned a number that relates to the sequence same as it appears in the text, which is a numeric reference style. The same number is used if the same source is mentioned more than once in the text.

Using references in the manuscript as citations (i.e. in-text citations)

You can enter the number in brackets or as a superscript when adding an in-text citation to your document. Whichever option you use, be sure you maintain consistency throughout your work. e.g. (1) or [1] or 1.

Include the citation number for each piece of work if you want to cite more than one source in a sentence. To connect two integers, use a hyphen. g. There are many studies that have examined the effect of alcohol on cognitive impairment (1,3, 4-7, 9).

Example: These findings were in agreement with the results of previous studies [2,22-24]. It is noteworthy that some researchers have reported that BMI does not correlate with H. pylori incidence [8,23].

Listing references (i.e. reference list at the end of the paper)

It is not necessary to mention the author in the citation in the text while using the Vancouver style, but you must include the author in your reference list at the conclusion. This list appears at the end of the paper, in numerical order same as it appeared in the text.

Example: Pattnaik K, Das K. Property rights, control, and the performance of firms in Indian industry. Journal of Economics 2019;42(1): 109-138.

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