Publication Cycle: An Overview

Every manuscript submitted to a journal has to progress through the complete publication cycle before it finally gets published. The publication cycle takes genesis with the research idea. The researchers take this idea to a new horizon by conducting experiments, taking into account the previous publications that deal with similar topic. The research draft is then submitted to a journal that is followed by the assessment, reviewing, and further production processing before being published. Let’s discuss the different phases in detail so that we can get a bird’s eye view of the entire publication process.

How publication cycle works?

After the manuscript is submitted, it is first screened by the Editor-in-chief; if rejected, the paper is returned to the author, and if accepted, it goes to the next level. Here, the paper is checked for plagiarism, and conformity to the journal guidelines. Once the manuscript clears this technical round it is then sent for review by a panel of reviewers, who are subject experts. Here, the reviewers either reject the paper for lack of novelty or other reasons that might be study specific or they could either accept the paper or suggest revisions before acceptance. The paper with revisions is sent to the Editor-in-chief for approval, before being sent for a second and final round of review. At times, the paper gets rejected even after coming this far. If the paper is accepted it then goes through the in-house publication process, before finally getting published.

Some journals forego this time taking and tedious process and instead publish all manuscripts after checking it for novelty, relevance to the field of study and compliance to the style guide of the journal. This ensures a shorter review time and faster publication.

How long can a publication cycle run?

The publication cycle time of a journal cannot be assessed unless and until it is specified by the journal. Hence, it is difficult to know which journals have a fast publication cycle. Some journals take months before they give their first decision whereas some let their first decision known in a couple of weeks. Generally, the time gap between submission and first decision varies between 2-3 weeks.

What if the publication cycle is slow-moving?

The slow decision process becomes mentally tasking for researchers, as they spent many anxious months and even years before they actually get to know if their manuscript has been published or not. If their manuscript does not get published they have to again go through the same process of preparing their manuscript according to the guidelines of a new journal, submit it there and again wait for its decision. This cycle sometimes goes on for a few years before the manuscript gets published. In this process sometimes it so happens that the relevance of the paper or the research gets outdated by the time it is accepted for publication, thereby making the efforts of the researcher futile.

It is for these reasons that the researchers earnestly want a fast publication cycle, where they do not have to wait for so long to get a decision on their manuscript. Also, the publication houses are trying their best to formulate ways to make the publication process faster so that good and relevant researches do not become irrelevant. However, the authors need to be aware of the millions of predatory journals luring them for publishing within a very short duration. The authors are the best person to judge their options and choose the one that helps their research best.

Preparing tables for research papers

How to effectively prepare tables for research papers

Tables and illustrations are important tools for efficiently communicating information and data contained in your research paper to the readers. They present complex results in a comprehensible and organized manner.

However, it is advisable to use tables and illustrations wisely so as to maximize the impact of your research.They should be organized in an easy-to-understand format to convey the information and findings collected in your research. The tabular information helps the reader identify the theme of the study more readily. Although data tables should be complete,they should not be too complex. Instead of including a large volume of data in a single unwieldy table, it is prudent to use small tables to help readers identify the important information easily.

Here are some points you should consider before drafting the tables in your research paper:

  • Finalize the results that are required to be presented in tabular form.
  • Include the data or results that are relevant to the main aim of the study without being choosy and including only those results that support your hypothesis.
  • Create each table in a lucid manner and style without cluttering it with in-table citations.
  • Number the tables in a sequence according to their occurrence in the text.
  • Don’t mix tables with figures. Maintain separate numbering systems for tables and figures.
  • Create tables in a storytelling manner. Remember that your tables communicate a story to the reader that runs parallel to the text.
  • If you are using or reproducing tables from other published articles, obtain permission from the copyright holder (usually the publisher) or/andacknowledge the source.
  • Do not repeat the tabular contents in the text again; that will create confusion among readers.
  • Use clear and informative text for each table title.
  • Take extra care while extending the data in your tables. If you have too many tables, consider using them as appendices or supplementary materials.
  • Create tables with sufficient spacing in the layout so that they do not look messy, crowded, or cluttered.
  • Do not forget to spell out abbreviations used in the tables, ideally in the footnotes.

For the reader, a research paper that is dense and text-heavy can be tiresome. Conversely, tables not only encapsulate your data lucidly, but also welcome a visual relief for the reader. They add value to the layout of your paper. Besides, and more importantly, reviewers often glance at your tabulated data and illustrations first before delving into the text. Therefore, tables can be the initial draw for a reviewer and deliver a positive impact about your research paper. If you can achieve an optimum balance among your text, tables, and illustrations, it can go a long way toward being published.

Strategies to surpass hurdles faced by NNES authors

Difficulties faced by non native english authors during publication

In the world of research, the dominance of the English language has been experienced by all native or non-native English speaking (NNES) researchers. Not surprisingly, this often finds a place in academic discussions worldwide. The minimum expectation of academic journals, apart from the quality of research, is that your paper must have a strong foundation in the English language. In fact, competence in the English language has emerged as an essential component for giving your research the necessary visibility and acting as a stepping-stone to publication in international journals.

With English as the lingua franca for publication in reputed science journals, academic works in English far exceed those in other languages. This has left non-native English speaking scientists with the predicament of struggling to gain recognition for their work. It is difficult for them to survive in this increasingly competitive English-oriented world of academics. On the other hand, publishers of international journals are also in a dilemma because of the growing number of extremely cogent and potent researches written by non-native English speaking authors. Although these researches carry important findings, they are often rejected by editors and publishers because of poor language skills that impinge clarity. For instance, these researches might present the scope of the study in language that lacks lucidity and carries many editorial flaws. Language is also a barrier for many NNES writers due to a lack of understanding of the instructions to authors for the target journal.

Apart from these obvious obstacles, linguistic errors and plagiarized text are also major hindrances in getting the paper published in international journals. While highlighting these obstacles for NNES writers, it is more important to look for solutions that will help them circumvent these problems.

There are some fundamental guiding principles that NNES writers can follow to overcome the hurdles on their publication journey.

Have patience. If your paper is rejected, follow and address the editors’ and reviewers’ comments on your paper. Incorporate the required modifications and improve your paper for the next submission. Do not feel disheartened and keep trying until you succeed.

Linguistic corrections. Friends and co-workers can be your best critics in your research journey. Get your paper reviewed on the grounds of language and other loopholes before submitting.

Study published papers. Some NNES authors are prominent researchers who have published their papers in international journals. Study their work and follow their style without falling into the pitfalls of plagiarism and imitative research. In short, follow their writing style, but be original in your research.

Select the right journal for your paper. Apart from the bulk of international journals, some academic journals are interested in publishing the researches of non-native English researchers. Hence, search for the right journal by analyzing papers by NNES authors similar to your research to increase the chance of acceptance.

Follow the target journal guidelines strictly. Many papers are rejected or returned because they do not adhere to the guidelines for manuscript preparation. Therefore, ensure that you follow them strictly and format your paper accordingly.

Team up with your co-researchers. It is possible to analyze most academic publications and gauge their preferred perceptions, strategies, and criteria for publication. To leverage this factor, create more contacts with experienced researchers and look for potential areas of collaboration in research and writing.

Editing services. Consider taking the help of language editing services offered by native-English speakers with scientific expertise. Such services improve the language, presentation, and scientific research content. They can work on the language flaws in your paper and lower all the barriers in getting your paper published. These services can also help you respond to the editors’ and reviewers’ comments on your paper.

Instead of becoming despondent and dejected, it is far more critical to make use of your time optimally by identifying appropriate ways to overcome hindrances and strategize well for publishing in English journals.

Literature Review Writing Services

What is Literature Review?Literature review is an important part of every student’s project or research work. In order to write an outstanding literature review, various factors must be considered. The literature should be compiled to offer a clear understanding of the research topic and its subject, question, and aim.

However, if someone is finding it difficult to write a literature review on their own, it is highly recommended to seek the help of professional literature review writing services. These service providers are efficient in providing a well-written literature review. All the work is carried out by a group of expert writers who are highly experienced in the concerned research area.

The present blog article provides some basic ideas about the different types of literature review writing services, and the points one should keep in mind while looking for a capable writing service provider.

Types of Literature Review Writing Services

Dissertation Literature Review

Most students find it complicated to write a dissertation literature review and hence turn to professional dissertation literature review writers who understand the importance of a dissertation literature review for a research work. The work is entrusted to a well-trained team of professional writers, which guarantees that the dissertation literature review is completed without errors. The writers are able to manage both simple and difficult topics with skillful ease. They follow all the requirements of the researcher before beginning the work. This ensures that the final product matches the needs of the target readers.

Thesis Literature Review

Several students find it a complicated task to assemble a logical, reasoned, and comprehensive literature review for their doctoral submissions. However, professional writers, who are proficient in building and managing a literature review and have access to the relevant resources, can ensure that the completed work meets the student’s requirements.

Although there are several providers who offer such writing services, it is imperative to hire a reliable service provider after conducting prior research to evaluate and ascertain the credentials of all groups who offer such services. Testimonials are important in finalizing the services offered by a particular company. Among other rigorous writing practices, a dependable service provider will deliver work that is plagiarism free and without any missing details.

Importance of an apt title for your research paper

Writing a research paper with innovative and groundbreaking findings might be a difficult task in itself, but a carefully formulated title is also just as important.

A Good Research Paper TitleBy its sheer positioning at the top, the title occupies a pristine position in your research paper and readers, reviewers, and editors are inadvertently drawn to it first. This makes it imperative on your part to give considerable time and thought to go through several iterations before finalizing the title of your research paper. The title needs to be clear, concise, and indicative of the research topic.

Often, readers consider the title as the primary parameter to check the suitability and importance of a research work. Hence, the title should be enticing without being verbose, so that the reader is persuaded to read the abstract that follows the title. Much like the cover of a book, it is the main heading of a research paper that leaves an indelible imprint in the reader’s mind. Besides, in this age of Internet search queries, the title can technically act as a metadata string that highlights the aim of your research and helps other researchers locate your paper when they use a web crawler.

The following are some tips for making your title more meaningful and easily discoverable by search engines:

  • Use proper sentence structure in the title.
  • Consider the target audience of your paper before selecting words for the title and structure them accordingly.
  • Think of a short title that best expresses the salient features of your paper.
  • Avoid descriptive, interrogative, or rhetoric titles for scientific research papers.
  • Try to include the fine points of the subject population (e.g., children with autism and alcohol-withdrawn patients, etc.).
  • Focus of the title should be on the outcome of the study.
  • Restrict the use of abbreviations unless they are exceptionally common.
  • Never construct the title on the basis of statistical findings of the paper.
  • Use punctuations wisely.

Title tells the objective of the paperA title of an article or a paper, irrespective of its type and genre, should be able to express the main objective of the paper in order to be useful for readers or researchers. That will lead more web searches to your research paper and increase the chances of it being cited in other research work.

Proofreading service provider

Written works, publications, or writings, for the purpose of either academic or business, should ideally be completely free from errors related to format, grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc., before the final piece is produced.

For academic purposes, such as a dissertation, this is essential because mistakes in the presentation, most often result in deducted marks. While in businesses, the best, error-free work produced, portrays the concerned business in the best light.

Why you must hire a proofreading service provider?

Producing any written document is stressful work, particularly if there is a deadline. There is a tendency to make mistakes if the work is rushed. It therefore helps to have a professional look through the work to find out and correct the mistakes, if any.

The importance of hiring a proofreader

In employing the services of a proofreading agency, for any written work, its reputation and quality of work, for previous customers, should be taken into account.

Many companies who offer this service give a personalized quote to every customer and they base this on the length of whatever has been written and needs to be checked, because a very high level of concentration is needed to make sure the job is done properly and correctly to the highest standards. The exact price is hence known this way and is a better way of sorting out pricing without being surprised by extra costs.

One possible question for the chosen agency is about the fields they specialize in, or whether their proofreaders are able to cover a variety of subjects. It always helps to have a proofreader who understands the exact area the publication has been written for.

Another important aspect to be mutually sorted out is a time frame. The company should provide a date, on which the proofread copy, along with all necessary amendments would be received back. Most written work in today’s age is done on the computer. On completion, it can be emailed to a proofreading agency instantly so that it can be checked and sent back, as soon as possible.

Another main advantage of doing it this way is that any revisions can be made quickly and easily, with these being sent back with the fully revised copy.

This serves for future reference, so that the mistakes aren’t repeated. Some agencies actually use specialized software to aid their work which helps in getting it done more quickly. This is especially true when it comes to longer documents.

On some occasions, requiring the work to be finished as quickly as possible, the agency can be informed and it can be found out whether or not the finished piece can be produced within the stipulated time.

Thus, using the services of a proofreading agency would be advantageous to an author, before he/she sends their work to the publisher.

You can visit our website to know more about proofreading as well as other editing and writing services.

The Editor: A vital role barely talked about

One of the most crucial roles in the domain of manuscript publishing is that of the editor. While a manuscript undergoes a series of steps that finally leads to its publication in a journal of the author’s choice, editing is the first stage that breathes life into a raw document. An editor polishes the knowledge and skills of a writer and even supplements the manuscript with new material that a writer might not have, might not know how to use, or fail to see its relevance in the work. In short, an editor assembles the pieces of a manuscript to create a fascinating and appealing picture that the readers will want to explore in depth.

  • A writer can employ specific services and specialist editors; the choice depends on the stage in which the manuscript is in the publishing cycle:
  • A structural or stylist editor gives shape and expression to the work.
  • A proofreading editor examines and corrects the spelling, punctuation, and grammatical elements of the work.
  • A copyeditor typically reads the text and checks it for sense, clarity, and grammatical accuracy, and conformity with the guidelines provided by the writer.
  • A manuscript editor focuses on the structure and flow of the work as a whole.

An editor serves the project, the author, and the reader. Therefore an editor should preferably be a native English speaker or someone who is very well-versed with the nuances of the language. One of the primary functions of an editor is to correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation and simultaneously be aware of the target journal guidelines. It is essential for an editor to maintain consistency and logic (ensuring the need of the target audience), and verify headings, statistics, graphs, and footnote entries. An editor captures the writer’s voice and sensibilities and presents the work in the best possible manner to meet the expectations of the audience. All in all, an editor balances the writer’s intent with the publisher’s standards and the reader’s expectations and finds a way to satisfy all three requisites.

Editors are sticklers for perfection. They have a great eye for detail, a strong vocabulary, and in-depth knowledge of grammar rules and conventions. Language is their forte and they are aware of its impact and significance. Hence, it becomes imperative to know the background and credentials of the editor you are entrusting your work to. Requesting testimonies and work samples is a good approach to know more about the editor and make an informed choice. By researching and being clear on the expectations and outcomes, one can be in control and convey the right message to the editor to ensure that the manuscript reaches its apt destination. A great editor is ideally supposed to make the journey toward publication a pleasurable one. Conversely, a poor editor will have an adverse effect both on the quality and the time taken to see the project reach a logical conclusion.

As Stephen King rightly put it, “To write is human, to edit is divine.”

Importance of English editing for non-native speaking authors

English is recognized as the lingua franca for scientific publications. This might be considered to be a deterrent for Non-Native English Speaking (NNES) authors because they find it difficult to assemble their thoughts and prepare their manuscripts for submission to the leading journals. Therefore, many new scientific researches or revelations might never come to light.

NNES researchers and authors usually seek international recognition instead of being confined to their national boundaries. Consequently, they opt for international journals in English. However, these journals are very particular about the language structure and a manuscript with poor language is inevitably rejected. Even if the paper is accepted, the journal reviewers will come down hard on any ambiguity in the language and give a negative feedback. In few cases, they can reject the manuscript citing lack of relevance to the journal’s scope.

In this scenario, NNES authors can seek solace in proficient editing services, which can help bring their manuscripts to the required standard. Professional editors can tweak sentences and content to expunge ambiguous statements, so that the research is presented in a clear, lucid, and cogent manner.

Common mistakes by NNES authors

The most common mistakes committed by NNES writers include the following:

  • Sentence structure: They commit mistakes in basic English writing, particularly grammatical mistakes.
  • Clarity: They often face the problem of expressing their ideas in English, which leads to complex and wordy sentences that impede understanding.
  • Subject specific terms: They are often unable to use technical terms appropriately, which might lead to serious fallacies.

The way forward for NNES authors

Rather than being disheartened, NNES authors should take measures to overcome the obstacles on the way to getting published in reputed journals.

Before hiring a professional editing service to review their manuscripts, they need to take care of the following points to communicate their research ideas better through their writing:

  • They should keep the text as simple as possible by reducing the sentence length, vocabulary usage, and complexity.
  • Usage of idioms and phrases should be minimized.
  • The paper should contain only subject-related technical terminologies.
  • The context of the paper should be clear and concise so that the referees build-up an understanding about the subject while reviewing.

These writing guidelines, coupled with the expertise of a professional editor, can go a long way in ensuring publication in renowned journals.

Why opt for professional editing services?

Importance of professional editing

Professional editing services provide a broad spectrum of services such as basic and advanced copy editing, proofreading, and substantive editing. Substantive editing can be opted for by an author when the paper requires in-depth editing, restructuring, and rephrasing, or if the sentences lack clarity. In such cases of high-level editing, professional editors rephrase and rewrite the convoluted and imprecise sentences and paragraphs. This input considerably enhances the presentation of your manuscript and improves the chances of publication. Advanced copyediting is a less rigorous editing process that often encompasses an expanded copyediting service to fix minor errors in your paper. The service also includes rewriting of certain unclear sentences, but the amount of editing remains modest. Basic copyediting entails correction of general grammatical and syntax errors and improving word choice to enhance the manuscript in terms of presentation and clarity. Proofreading involves checking of overall errors in the manuscript including grammar, punctuation marks, capitalization, and better word choice at certain places to improve the quality of the paper. It constitutes the basic level of editing and polishes a manuscript. To avail such professional editing services, one needs to hire an editor who is well-versed with the aforementioned editing categories. The benefits of hiring a professional editor include the following:

  • Authors who have excellent ideas but find it difficult to express them on paper can gain substantially.
  • Professional editing services save the author’s time.
  • The chances of publication of the manuscript are enhanced manifold.
  • Minor as well as major errors in your manuscript are identified and ironed out.
  • Authors get acquainted with the general writing conventions, grammar rules, and proper usage of punctuation marks, which helps them avoid convoluted and incorrect sentences in their writing.
  • Professionally edited manuscripts have an edge in the peer review process.

Professionally edit for publication

Although professional editors can polish the manuscript by pointing out gaps in the paper, the onus of the research paper lies on the author. Therefore, a professional editor can ably serve as a helping hand in the publication process, but cannot assure publication of the manuscript. Nonetheless, if the author is able to take note of all suggestions by the editor and provide the necessary information, the paper has a much greater chance of success.

Guidelines to write an effective abstract

The abstract, which is a concise portrayal of the research work, is a decisive factor for the target journal or reader. It is not only essential to encourage people to read your paper, but also to persuade them to cite it in their research work. Thus, it is worth investing some extra time to write an attractive yet simple abstract.

First, it is important to read the main text several times to mentally absorb and retain the whole research work. Thereafter, attempt a draft that does not merely copy the sentences from the main text of the paper. Instead, the abstract should encapsulate the research concisely. Going through several iterations is a good way of improving an abstract.

The first few sentences of the abstract should illustrate the background and the purpose of the research work. These sentences should grab the reader’s attention and create an inquisitiveness to read in greater depth. The next couple of sentences should focus on the methodology of the research. Finally, the abstract should end with the result and conclusion part, which should be summarized in just 3-5 sentences. This part should be concise and emphasize the significant results and not the statistics.

Once the draft is done, proofread the draft to refine it as much as possible. Avoid verbose writing and verify the text for coherence of the information provided and proper usage of grammar. Besides text, scientific journals have come up with a new idea of summarizing their research paper through a graphical abstract. A graphical abstract is a single, concise, pictorial and visual summary of the main findings of the article. It could either be the concluding figure from the article or a figure that captures the content of the article for readers at a single glance. These days, researchers and scientists find abstract writing to be a cumbersome process and instead opt for a graphical abstract.

Regardless of the type of the abstract, it is an essential part of your manuscript that persuades editors, reviewers, and other researchers to absorb your research in detail.