Misplaced, Dangling and Squinting Modifiers

A modifier is a word or phrase that describes or adds details to a sentence. In the below examples, the modifiers are italicized.

  • I went through all the stores yesterday, looking for the perfect gift.
  • While walking on the sand, she removed her slippers.

One should place modifiers carefully so that the reader understands what is being modified. Writers, generally, make three types of modifier mistakes: misplaced, dangling and squinting modifiers.

 

Misplaced modifier: 

A misplaced modifier is a wrongly placed modifier that makes the subject of the modifier unclear. The reader may not be sure of the word the modifier is describing or may think of a different word being described instead of the intended one. Consider the below examples:

INCORRECT: The man walked towards the building carrying a box.

In this sentence, the building is carrying a box, which is illogical.

REVISED: The man carrying a box walked towards the building.

INCORRECT: We returned the packets to the store that was new.

REVISED: We returned the new packets to the store.

INCORRECT: She served biscuits to the children on paper plates.

REVISED: She served biscuits on paper plates to the children.

Dangling modifier:

When a modifier improperly modifies something in a sentence, it is called a dangling modifier. It is often located in the beginning or at the end of a sentence. The error may occur because the modifier has nothing to refer or is placed next to the wrong noun that it does not modify. Consider the following examples:

INCORRECT: To improve his outcomes, the analysis was done again.

Who wanted to improve outcomes? This sentence indicates that the analysis wants to improve its own outcomes.

REVISED: He improved his outcomes by doing the analysis again or

To improve his outcomes, he performed the analysis again.

INCORRECT: After reviewing the research article, it remains unconvincing.

REVISED: After reviewing the research article, I find the article unconvincing.

INCORRECT: When ten years old, my mother tried to teach me cooking.

REVISED: When I was ten years old, my mother tried to teach me cooking.

Squinting modifier:

squinting modifier may describe two situations, i.e., either the word before it or the word after it. In other words, it is an ambiguously placed modifier. Consider the below example:

INCORRECT: I told my daughter after she completed her homework we would play together.

The above sentence is not clear.

Does it mean that I told my daughter after she completed her homework? Does it mean that we would play together after she completed her homework?

REVISED: After she had completed her homework, I told my daughter we would play together. Or, I told my daughter we would play together after she completed her homework.

Improve the Readability of Your Writing

It was less complicated writing in school and colleges for our assignment or project. However, writing for the real world is different. People don’t go to any blog, sales page, or website to just read, but to get the information. That means they need the substance to be as effectively to ingest as could be expected under the circumstances. In the event that they could infuse it Matrix-style into their mind, they might. In any case, since that is not a choice yet, you need to make it as simple as could be expected under the circumstances for them to peruse. In this way, how about we begin by basically following the below given tips.

The present article on “Improve the Readability of Your Writing” provides some basic tips that every writer should follow in order to enhance the readability of their writings.

Tips to Improve the Readability of Your Writing

1. Make short sentences

Ensure to make your sentences short, particularly, the first. Short sentences drastically improve response. There is simply something about a short and simple to read sentence that attracts the readers and urges them to continue reading.

2. Use short paragraphs

In case you are a copywriter or any kind of online writer, you have to split your paragraphs. Preferably, this means keeping them to one to three sentences in maximum. It may seem odd the first time you attempt it. However, once you begin doing it, you will figure out how to love it.

3. Use subheadings

Try to use subheadings. Subheadings make your composition searchable. They make it so that even if the reader declines to read the whole article, they will get a general idea of what the content is about. Envision your subheadings like miniature headings. They ought to attract the reader and provide them a synopsis of what’s in store. They ought to propelling and educational, and keep your reader moving along through your writing. Ensure to use subheadings each 3–5 passages while writing online content.

4. Use bulleted lists

Readers love points and lists. Lists are easy to read, and easy to search. They provide a great deal of data rapidly. They also offer a visual break to your reader, since they seem not quite the same as whatever is left of your content. Essentially, lists and points make your writing more attractive. Try to use them wherever applicable.

5. Analysis it

What’s the most ideal approach to know the accurate decipherability of your writing? Test it. There are many distinctive approaches to do this. However, one of the most efficient ways is the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease score. This test uses a numerical equation to evaluate the average number of syllables per word and the average number of words per sentence for a 100-word piece of content. Results for the Flesch-Kinkaid Reading Ease score are measured on a scale of 1 to 100 (1 being exceptionally hard and 100 being most simple to comprehend). Most copywriters and online writers ought to strive for the 60–70 range. Moreover, if you need a second basic approach to test readability of your content, try the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score out. In view of evaluation levels from 0 to 12 (0 being the least and 12 being the greatest), this test evaluates syllables and sentence length.

By following the above given tips to improve the readability of your writing, you can easily learn to improve the readability and clarity of your writings. However, this needs patience and regular practice.

Writing a Book Review

Writing a book review is an extremely resourceful task that includes an extensive variety of skills. Writing a book review is not confined to certain disciplines as a wide range of subjects have book review tasks where the writer evaluates a book after carefully reading it entirely. While writing a book review, writers should incorporate some details about the chief aspects of the book, like character, plot, theme and setting. In order to write an effective book review, it is essential to have the reviewer’s outlook of how well the author has pursued in using those aspects.

The present article on “Writing a Book Review” provides some basic tips and information that every writer should follow in order to efficiently review a book.

Tips for Writing a Book Review

  • A book review specifically presents sufficient details to help the reader decide whether he/she needs to read the book.
  • In order to write an effective book review, the reviewer must first read the book intensely, which requires a thorough and careful attempt.
  • While writing a book review, the reviewer must have sufficient knowledge about the genre of the book, like whether it is a romance novel or historical, mystery and thriller or science fiction. Nonetheless, reviewers must also be considerate of the elements that involve great literature of this type.
  • While evaluating a book, try to find out the intention of the author. Take into account what the title and subtitle might mean. Collect notes, write down the favorite parts or quotes you think are weak, and then review every section.
  • Always try to do some background research. Gather information about the author. Explore the subject matter. Think about the possible subjects for the book. After conducting a sufficient amount of research work, you can prepare about writing the first draft of your review.
  • Review the book shortly in the first paragraph. Try a passage from the book and support it with a statement that explains why that note is distinctive or not distinctive. Comment on what you think the author’s intent was in writing the book and how well has he/she achieved this target.
  • Depending on how you start the book review, the rest of the part will be influenced by your choices. Nevertheless, the fundamental direction and focus of the piece goes from there.
  • Try to convey each of your views about your opening message with simplifications. Try to state how every of your illustrations make your point.
  • Ensure to provide transitions between paragraphs. Try to make your review mix together with views related to your subject matter.
  • Wind up your review using a paragraph or two that express your topic into ultimate focus for your reader. You might end up to a conclusion about the subject matter, the author’s intention, or about the overall efficiency of the book.
  • After writing a book review, always read them out loud and remove the discomfited phrases. Observe your notes for correctness and precision. Moreover, make sure that you have not updated your review with notes.
  • Try not to write the review unless you have analyzed the book intensely and completely.
  • Try not to make general comments about the book. In fact, you can use explicit quotations or examples.
  • Lastly, if possible, request a friend to appraise the review. As a matter of fact, fresh eyes can often catch mistakes in the review that you might have missed out.

By following the above given tips for writing a book review, one can easily learn to review a book without any major error or mistake. However, in order to be able to write a completely effective book review, thorough knowledge and practice is needed.

India’s first markets: Their role in 21st-century economic progress

India’s first markets have for millennia attracted people: to conquer, to plunder, to settle, to prosper, and to leave behind a living legacy long after they sailed into the sunset as their fortunes ebbed. What attracted them to this land of gold and honey was its abundant wealth; they came to buy in the booming bazaars and to export India’s diverse high quality produce and products.  India’s first civilization, which spread from its type-site Harappa in Punjab (in present-day Pakistan) to Kutch, the Ganga valley, and even further south to coastal Maharashtra and Karnataka, bears ample evidence of the existence of such flourishing markets and port towns in proto-historic India.

India’s first Markets as carriers of economic growth and prosperity

If truth were to be told, the affluence and opulence of ancient Indian civilizations were brought out by India’s first markets which included the twin modes of economic growth, namely, markets and exports. Many centuries before Japan and South Korea resorted to the export-oriented growth theory to promote swift development of their economies, the early Indian rulers, craftsmen, and tradesmen had successfully adopted the same growth ideology to usher in riches and luxury to its populace through India’s first markets. Not surprisingly, it has been estimated that India had the world’s largest economy during the years 1-1000 CE. According to Maddison’s calculations (see Table), China and India together contributed 50.5% of world GDP.

gdp

Virtually every facet of human life and venture is a reflection of the development of India’s first markets. Not surprisingly, India is now emerging steadily as an Asian giant, aspiring to become an economic superpower of the world by the mid-21st century.

For good or bad, there is no denying the critical role played by various mercantile and commercial epochs, which owed much to the trade and market expansion through those eras, in the origin of India’s first markets. This has enabled India to occupy a pride of place on the global economic map in the 21st century. Each strand of India’s economic, social, and cultural growth is nothing but a continual process of evolution, experimentation, and improvisation in every sphere of economic activity that has been facilitated primarily by the business and commercial exchanges seen in India’ first markets.

History of nations is essentially a history of their political economies, and is driven in the pursuit of not so much political as commercial conquests. Most facets of human behavior surface out of business exchanges at market places. So also do economic processes and institutions. These have not been day-break discoveries or inventions, but have evolved over centuries through an endless string of tried and tested market processes, experiments, and research. To put it more explicitly, the term “market” means much more than its simple generic implication of buy and sell; markets are of various kinds, marketing functions are many, different genres as it were, and each genre has developed through time to meet the requirements of specific sorts of buy and sell transactions.

But for India’s first markets, man would have well-nigh remained a nomad in search of food. In view of the critical role that markets undoubtedly played in the rise of human civilization, a prod into both the proto-historic and historic growth of markets makes a fascinating research inquiry. Hence, as one views and visits the modern next-generation exchange markets, it would indeed be exciting to peep into the past, and trace the growth of markets, market logistics, and market institutions over the past millennia. And no other country seems more apt for such a probe into times of yore than India, which can boast of a long history, and has subsequently traversed through successive historical eras, thanks to the entry of races and cultures of diverse hues in different periods of time.

Writing Headings

Whether or not an audience will read the whole piece of content often relies on the effectiveness of its heading. Thus, for almost every kind of content, the heading is the most vital part. Due to this, every writer tries his best to write a heading that is, not only attractive and appealing, but also impressive. Although there is no particular method for creating an efficient title, there are definite principles that you can pursue to come about with headings that grasp attention. The present article on “Writing Headings” provides some basic tips that should lead you toward that success.

Tips for Writing Headings

Target the Benefits

Normally, readers choose to read such articles, which directly benefit them. In other words, they are concerned with the articles that educate them something new, attempt to solve their difficulties, or provide something that is significant to them. Due to this, effectual headings are often the ones that expose the advantages of the content to the proposed reader. However, the heading does not necessarily need to directly state the benefits of the content. It only needs to offer at least a clue that there is something in the content that might be valuable to the readers. To be brief, the heading should be a tease of the advantages that expect the viewers.

Make It Exceptional

Several copywriters and marketers have a relentless idea of what type of title works for the readers. Due to this, they likely settle for the headings, which are weary and basically unproductive. You must realise that such headings do not attract readers any longer and, in fact, annoys them most of the time. Therefore, stay away from unoriginal headings and instead create your own original ones. The titles do not inevitably need to be revolutionary. However, you must attempt to play around with words and come up with a heading that is unusual and remarkable.

Be Particular

A good heading attracts a specific group of people. It consists of phrases or words that instantly impact the audience for whom the content or copy is written. Specificity is important as readers, particularly those on the Internet, are extremely perceptive. They are eager to know immediately whether or not the content is meant for them. If they get no appropriate information from the heading, they simply overlook the article in general and move on to another website. Therefore, always make it a point to think about your readers while writing headings. Try to include words and phrases that are reasonable and interesting to them.

Don’t Compromise

While writing for an online business, one may be enticed to add keywords to his heading. After all, this will help in increasing the web traffic. However, as much as this helps your SEO, adding keywords to the heading can actually hamper its quality. While in the desire for crafting the most SEO-friendly heading, one may of course compromise the other elements that should be present in the heading. Thus, one must be concerned about the more essential aspects of writing headings before focusing on SEO. However, wherever possible, one can always add in some appropriate keywords while retaining the effectiveness of the heading, following the above mentioned tips.

Writing headings is not as difficult as it may seem in the beginning. By following the above mentioned tips, you will soon understand why writing headings can be actually unproblematic. However, it will just take some gradual practice to perfect it.

Why Editing Matters?

Why Editing Matters?

Why editing matters ? Has this question crossed your mind?  How many times have you come across a written piece in a newspaper, magazine, webpage or even a book and wondered where are the editors? It goes without saying that a single typographical error in a reading can hamper the writer’s as well as the publication’s reputation. Though, in this case the editors may not be at fault. Perhaps, the editors had done their best and the error was the result of a misprint. Nevertheless, there’s no denying the fact that errors hamper the flow of any written piece and are a source of discomfit for readers.

The point in this article is not to highlight how even in the best writing we can find scope for editing, but how better editing can bring the best out of any piece of writing.

Some Points on Why Editing Matters?

One of the vital aspects of writing is editing. Many a time editing becomes more effective when it is done by others. Most writers get their work edited by professional editors. This is because there are instances when you may not notice obvious errors in your own writing because you are reading what you are thinking, and not what is written. Writers are so engrossed with their own ideas and creations that they cannot discover even basic errors and typos from their manuscripts. That is why even the best writers have their work verified by professional editors.

So, what’s special about professional editors? Professional editors are trained to notice errors in a document and modify it appropriately to improve it to the acceptable standard. In other words, they have an excellent eye for detail that enables them to detect even the smallest of errors.

A professional editor is also a specialist editor, who alters the structure and content of a piece of writing, as they know what works and what doesn’t. Perhaps, this is the reason why editors are so highly regarded in the world of publishing and considered the real catalysts behind any publications’ success. A professional editor can bring more clarity and readability to a text by rephrasing sentences and reordering words. This makes the reading unambiguous and lucid thus ensuing the smooth flow of ideas offered in the content. In addition, substantive editing done by professional editors eliminates spelling and punctuation mistakes, errors in grammar and syntax, while also improving the style and rhythm of the text.

 

SEO Content Writing

Search engine optimisation or SEO content writing is not just an application to be used for the website, but it can be used for various other benefits as well. In a broad sense, SEO tools can be used in many different ways in order to promote websites, businesses, and products and services. In fact, one will be completely astonished at all the ways in which these services can be useful.

The present article on “SEO content writing” gives the fundamental ways to use SEO content writing and SEO tools. It also provides detailed information on why to use the services of SEO content writing.

Ways to use SEO Content Writing

Firstly, SEO content writing can be definitely used for websites. Organic search engine optimisation (Organic SEO) is significant for getting in the search engine records at a high position and compelling visitors to the website. Simultaneously, it is necessary for the content to be appealing, fascinating and instructive for the readers. Consequently, the visitors will be tempted to hang on to your website long enough to possibly buy services and/or products, or at least ask for some extra information. Hence, SEO content writing can be certainly used for improving the content of a website.

Secondly, SEO content writing can also be used for blogs for similar reasons as discussed above. Blogs are a great way to endorse businesses, develop brand appreciation and representation, as well as increase visitors to the main website. For this purpose, we have to use the same SEO procedures for our blogs that we would have used for the main website. Ensure that the blogs are mostly instructive in nature. Besides, they must be connected to your main website as a source for extra information, useful products or services.

Thirdly, SEO content writing can be employed for internet marketing purposes. One expects that anything he/she posts on the internet utilises organic SEO so that they have as many positive connections to their website as possible, and as a result receive plenty of hits in the search engines on different websites and advertising methods. The most general manner by which these services can be used for internet marketing is through article marketing. Instructive articles are written about products, services, company, and/or industry. Then, these articles are posted into article listings, where they get arranged in the search engines. The articles have a link connecting them back to the main website in order to increase visitors. Meanwhile, people come across the content and get to know about the company/brand in a positive light, thus increasing business.

On the whole, there are several other ways in which SEO content writing can assist in our dealings. The only limitation is our own imagination. Gradually, you will realise that the more SEO content you put on the website, the more successful your company will develop into. Therefore, utilise these services as much as possible, and be surprised at the outcomes you will accomplish.

Editing and Proofreading Services

In recent times, our world has become quite competitive and ambitious. With the rise of competitive industrial markets, efficiently written communication has become more critical than ever. An expressive and concisely prepared business document not only reflects professionalism, but also helps in making an affirmative first impression on the prospective business clients. On the other hand, if a business document comes into view as confusing and unclear and does not successfully communicate the intended message, it can most certainly place your reputation at threat and immediately acquire you a tag of being sloppy and unprofessional. The present article on “Editing and Proofreading Services” provides some basic information about professional editing and proofreading services, and also gives detailed information on why to take the help of these professionals.

Why Use Professional Editing and Proofreading Services

Usually, people fail to notice the importance of professional editing and proofreading services. They actually do not realize the values these professional services can attach to their written documents. Ahead of submitting any written document for publication, it is necessary to make sure that it communicates the intended message in the most understandable way as the business documents are an indication of our principles, as well as standards of our association. Therefore, it is always beneficial to take the help of professional editing and proofreading services before publishing our written documents.

Let’s look upon some points so as to why one should necessarily get the help of professional editing and proofreading services.

  • Written communications are of major significance. It is vital for a written document to be understandable and to the point. In case, it is not, there lurks a risk of losing a prospective business client since you were either unable to give enough attention to the details, or your document was unsuccessful in impressing the potential customer or financier.
  • Formerly, companies depended mainly on in-house services for their editing and proofreading requirements. However, because of growing time limitations and competition, companies are now gradually more outsourcing their editing and proofreading requirements to the professional services.
  • In the business world, terms like ‘editing’ and ‘proofreading’ are regularly used interchangeably. However, these two terms can be distinguished given that they focus on dissimilar features of writing. On one hand, editing focuses on the tone and flow of the manuscript. On the other hand, proofreading seeks to certify the rightness of the manuscript. By taking the help of a professional service provider, you can relax confident that both techniques are applied, use of which comes out with an outstandingly written document.
  • Business documents are a lot more vulnerable to mistakes as these documents characteristically involve association. Besides, the majority of business writers work under constraint and have to meet fixed targets. Inappropriate tone, repetition in words or facts, grammatical errors and spelling mistakes are some of the frequent mistakes in business writing. Writers habitually get so absorbed in their work that they often fail to observe those mistakes. Hence, the task must be transferred into the skilled hands of a professional editor and/or proofreader.

Concisely, professional editing and proofreading services can manage the written documents in a more efficient manner than in-house services or using word-processing tools. Accordingly, we will get a wholesome professional representation that eventually develops reliance and reverence. This result must not be undervalued by any business. In fact, it may perhaps be what exists between you and the client you should protect.

Food Security Bill vis à vis India’s Financials: Food for Thought?

The 2014 elections are just around the corner, and it’s time for populist moves and one-upmanship by both the incumbent government and the opposition. Not surprisingly, the UPA pushed the National Food Security Bill through the Rajya Sabha on September 2 within a week of the nod from the Lok Sabha, and the administration is now undoubtedly going to brandish it as the potent weapon running up to the elections next year. Conversely, the opposition is already sharpening its fangs for an all-out battle against the provisions of the bill, and even more so against the way it was pushed into Parliament.

Food Security Bill: What does it mean for the beneficiaries?

Ostensibly, the Food Security Bill—touted by the government as a landmark legislation in India’s constitutional history—has a “bite” for almost all sections of the population: 67% of the 1.2 billion population will receive grains with a subsidized price-freeze for three years; mothers-to-be will get free meals till the baby’s first six postnatal months, and children upto 14 years will receive free meals.

The specific stipulations in the bill, down to the nitty gritty of who is going to get how many kgs of grains, only accentuate the ambitious nature of the Food Security Bill. With numerous government schemes announced every other day and a poor follow up rate in their implementation, one cannot help being skeptical of the provisions of the Food Security Bill. Not surprisingly, experts have already called for a systematic selection of the beneficiaries, and a revamped public distribution system (PDS) to ensure that the provisions reach the intended beneficiaries. The PDS in various states is still not subject to a uniform yardstick, and some states are ahead of others in efficient functioning of the system. In the absence of a proficient distribution system, the past has often been a story of rotting grains in godowns while the needy wait for supplies that never arrive.

The problem of inefficient distribution is a worry for the government too. The Centre has announced that it will host a meeting with food secretaries of various states on September 23, where discussions will be held to facilitate smooth implementation of the Food Security Bill.

Food Security Bill to drive national debate till 2014?

On the other hand, protagonists in the opposition camp argue that the Food Security Bill will imply a huge outflow from the exchequer, leading to a severe crunch in India’s financial arithmetic. The cost implications for putting the Food Security Bill into practice is ranging from the government’s own estimate of Rs 25,000 crore to an astronomical Rs 200,000 crore voiced by some quarters in the opposition. Another charge leveled at the Food Security Bill is that its provisions will entail grain procurement of 62 million tonnes a year, leading to additional pressure on the exchequer and a possible inflation of food prices.

The next few days will likely see stepped up rhetoric from both the government and the opposition, and it will be a busy primetime on most news channels. Both sides will go all out to take extreme positions in the debate and harden their stance, and the discerning public will surely get to hear the clang of this debate right up to the general elections, and perhaps even later when the new government assumes office and declares its intent on the bill.

Content Development

Content is the most essential part of any blog or website. In order to make the content interesting for the readers, the content needs to be exceptional and simultaneously creative. Readability of any content is determined by how the content has been developed. Content development is a chief factor of content writing and more or less content that is reasonable, appropriate and convincing.

The present article on “Content Development” provides some basic tips to keep in mind, and hopefully, even follow them while writing any content for blogs, websites, etc. to come out with an exceptional piece of work.

Tips for Content Development

  • There exist certain features that manage the prospective of good quality content. Basically, it is a three step procedure. The first is to identify the target reader or audience, second is to write the content in a convincing manner, and third is to make use of appropriate keywords in the content.
  • While searching on the internet for a certain topic or a subject matter, we usually come across numerous websites and blogs related to the same topic and material. But what renders a particular webpage separate from others is its content development.
  • While writing content for any webpage or website, it is essential to dedicate a sufficient amount of time and explore into the subject matter to come about with significant content.
  • While writing content, ensure that the content you are writing is directed towards the anticipated reader/audience. In other words, the reader must find the content valuable enough to read it till the last part.
  • In order to improve readability of the content, try to use standard English as far as possible. Avoid using jargons or other difficult words and phrases for enabling the reader to understand the content easily. However, one can always put efforts in making the content appealing and engaging.
  • Spelling mistakes and grammatical errors can be serious negative aspects of any content. So, it is always advantageous to proofread the content before publishing or putting it online.
  • Depending on the topic one is writing the content on, the language can be formal or informal. However, make sure that the language is realistic and persuasive.
  • When a reader is searching some information on the internet, he/she types in specific keywords on a search-engine and is thus presented with links for the related webpages that have those keywords in their content. Therefore, it is always advised to insert some suitable keywords while developing the content. Doing so helps in improving the page rank of the webpage, and thus, develops the content readability.

Apart from all the above mentioned points, the most important point to be taken into account while content development is that the content must communicate a specific message, so that the reader realises the content to be worth reading.